Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology <p>Founded in 2012, “<a href=",_Discovery_%26_Innovation_in_Ophthalmology_Journal"><strong>Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology</strong></a>” is an international, open access, peer-reviewed (double-blind), quarterly journal that considers publications related to ophthalmology. The aim of which is to present a scientific medium of communication for researchers in the field of ophthalmology. The journal is of interest to a broad audience of visual scientists and publishes original articles, reviews, case reports, and commentaries. The Journal is affiliated &amp; published by "<strong><a href="">International Virtual Ophthalmic Research Center</a>"</strong> (Registration File Number 803630055).</p> <p><a href=",_Discovery_%26_Innovation_in_Ophthalmology"><strong>Journal Link in Wikipedia</strong></a></p> <p><a href=""><strong>Journal Link in Scopus</strong></a></p> <p><strong>Submission to first decision:</strong> 32 days</p> <p><strong>Acceptance to online publications:</strong> 53 days</p> <p><strong>Downloads:</strong> 98,241 (2021)</p> <p><a href=";hl=en"><strong>Citation Analysis at Scholar Google</strong></a></p> <p><a href=""><strong>ISSN portal</strong></a></p> <p><a href=""><strong>Citation Analysis in "Dimensions"</strong></a></p> IVORC en-US Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology 2322-3219 <p>Authors who publish with us agree to the following terms: Authors retain copyright and grant Journal the exclusive license and right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License (<a href="" target="_blank"></a>) which permits copy and redistributing the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Early and delayed suture adjustments after adjustable suture strabismus surgery: a randomized controlled trial <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adjustable sutures increase the success rate of strabismus surgery. However, the optimal timing of postoperative suture adjustment remains controversial. This trial was aimed at comparing the surgical outcomes and pain scores of early or 2 – 4 h and delayed or 24 h postoperative suture adjustment in adult patients undergoing strabismus surgery.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An open-label, prospective, randomized, comparative interventional study was performed in consecutive adult patients scheduled for eye muscle surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups: the early group, with suture adjustment 2 – 4 h postoperatively, and the delayed group, with suture adjustment 24 h postoperatively. Subjective pain scores during the adjustment were also analyzed. The angles of misalignment at 1 and 3 months and the success rate at 3 months postoperatively were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Forty-five (90%) patients completed the follow-up, including 23 (92%) in the early adjustment group and 22 (88%) in the delayed adjustment group, with a mean (standard deviation) age of 25.6 (9.5) years and a male-to-female ratio of 46.7:53.3. Thirty patients (66.7%) had exotropia, and 15 (33.3%) patients had esotropia. Both groups had comparable baseline characteristics (all <em>P</em> &gt; 0.05). The mean pain scores during adjustment did not differ significantly between groups (<em>P</em> &gt; 0.05). The postoperative angles of alignment were comparable between the groups before suture adjustment and at the 1- and 3-month follow-ups (all <em>P</em> &gt; 0.05). The success rate in the early adjustment group was slightly higher (87.0% versus 63.6%), but the difference was not statistically significant (<em>P</em> &gt; 0.05). The success rate was comparable between the groups in patients with esotropia or exotropia (both <em>P</em> &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Although the early adjustment group had a slightly higher success rate, the difference was not significant. Both groups had comparable subjective pain scores during adjustment. Future clinical trials should be performed different time intervals for postoperative suture adjustment, and subjective and objective outcomes, such as diplopia and stereopsis, should be compared between patients with a first strabismus surgery and those who underwent reoperation. This could better resolve the persistent controversy related to the optimal time for suture adjustment.</p> Ahmed Adel Abdelmonem Ahmed Awadein Mahmoud Mohamed M Genidy Ahmed Shawkat Abdelhalim Sahar Torky A Abdelaziz Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-03 2023-02-03 11 4 144 150 10.51329/mehdiophthal1458 Optic nerve head perfusion changes in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy treated with intravitreal ranibizumab or photocoagulation: a randomized controlled trial <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a serious sight-threatening disease, and half of the patients with high-risk PDR can develop legal blindness within 5 years, if left untreated.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>This study was aimed at comparing panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and intravitreal ranibizumab injections in terms of radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) density on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with treatment-naive PDR.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;This open-label, prospective, randomized clinical trial<strong>&nbsp;</strong>included 50 patients with treatment-naive PDR with optic disc neovascularization and randomized them into two groups: group 1, with patients undergoing two sessions of PRP 2 weeks apart, and group 2, with patients received three intravitreal ranibizumab injections (0.5 mg) 1 month apart for 3 consecutive months. Patients underwent a full ophthalmological examination, including best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) measurement in the logarithm of minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) notation and OCTA before intervention and monthly after the last laser session or the first intravitreal ranibizumab injection for 3 months of follow-up. Visual field (VF) was tested at the beginning and end of 3 months. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Forty-two (84%) eyes completed the 3-month follow-up, including 22 eyes in the PRP group (88%) and 20 (80%) eyes in the ranibizumab group. The two groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, diabetes duration, baseline BCDVA, glycated hemoglobin level, OCTA parameters, VF indices, and intraocular pressure (all <em>P</em> &gt; 0.05). The RPC density change from baseline to the 3-month follow-up was significantly lower in the PRP group than in the ranibizumab group (mean difference in RPC density change: - 3.61%; 95% confidence interval: - 5.57% to - 1.60%; <em>P</em> = 0.001). The median (interquartile range) logMAR change from baseline to the 3-month follow-up (0.0 [0.2]) was significantly higher in the PRP group than in the ranibizumab group (- 0.15 [0.3]; <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). The median changes in central foveal thickness from baseline to the 3-month follow-up differed significantly between the two groups (<em>P</em> = 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In eyes with PDR and neovascularization of the disc RPC density on OCTA increased in the ranibizumab group and decreased in the PRP group. Visual acuity gain was higher in the ranibizumab group than in the PRP group. Future multicenter trials addressing our limitations are required to verify the findings of this study.</p> Ahmed Magdy Raffat Helmy Mohammad Ahmad Rashad Hesham Mohamed Gharieb Wael Adel Gomaa Rania Gamal Eldin Zaki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-03 2023-02-03 11 4 151 161 10.51329/mehdiophthal1459 Eight years’ experience in mobile teleophthalmology for diabetic retinopathy screening <p>Background: Screening for diabetic retinopathy in the community without compromising the routine work<br>of ophthalmologists at hospitals is the essence of teleophthalmology. This study was aimed at investigating the<br>efficacy of teleophthalmology practice for screening diabetic retinopathy from 2012 to 2020. It was also aimed at comparing the 2-year prevalence of camps organized by a district hospital in South India, as well as the footfall, reporting, follow-up, patient response, and diagnostic efficacy at these camps.</p> <p>Methods: All patients with diabetes and unexplained vision deterioration attending the mobile camp units<br>underwent non-dilated fundus photography. Patients underwent teleconsultation with the ophthalmologist at<br>the district hospital, and those requiring intervention were called to the district hospital. Trends were studied<br>for the number of patients reporting to the hospital. Patient satisfaction was recorded based on a questionnaire.</p> <p>Results: A total of 682 camps were held over 8 years, and 30 230 patients were examined. Teleconsultation<br>was done for 12 157 (40.21%) patients. Patients requiring further investigations, intervention for diabetic<br>retinopathy, or further management of other ocular pathologies were urgently referred to the district hospital<br>(n= 3293 [10.89%] of 30 230 examined patients). The severity and presence of clinically significant macular<br>edema increased significantly with an increased duration of diabetes mellitus (P &lt; 0.001). The percentage of<br>teleconsultations showed an increasing trend over the years (P = 0.001). Similarly, considering trends of patients<br>reporting to the hospital, the attrition rate decreased over the years (P &lt; 0.05). A total of 10 974 of 12 157<br>(90.27%) patients who underwent teleophthalmic consultation were satisfied with the service.</p> <p>Conclusions: Teleconsultations over the years showed an increasing trend, and the attrition rate decreased over<br>the years. Teleophthalmology is achieving success in providing high-quality service, easy access to care, and in<br>increasing patient satisfaction. Future studies on the role of teleophthalmology for other leading preventable<br>causes of blindness seem possible and necessary.</p> Rohan Appukumran Kripanidhi Shyamsundar Mohini Agrawal Rolli Khurana Anju Pannu Praveen Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-03 2023-02-03 11 4 162 170 10.51329/mehdiophthal1460 Association of the serum chemerin level with the development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus <p><strong>Background:</strong> In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) correlates positively with elevated serum chemerin levels. This study was aimed at investigating the probable association between the serum chemerin level and the development of DR in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, we included Egyptians and classified them into four groups: group 1, including healthy individuals; group 2, including patients with T1DM without DR; group 3, including patients with T1DM with non-proliferative DR (NPDR); and group 4, including patients with T1DM with proliferative DR (PDR). The assessment included best-corrected distance visual acuity assessment, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, funduscopy, fundus fluorescein angiography, and macular ocular coherence tomography. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants to measure serum chemerin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride, and creatinine levels. Serum chemerin levels were compared among the groups, and their correlations with age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and creatinine levels were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We recruited 209 participants, including 46 healthy individuals in group 1, 52 patients (T1DM and no DR) in group 2, 61 patients (T1DM and NPDR) in group 3, and 50 patients (T1DM and PDR) in group 4, with comparable mean ages and sex ratios among groups. The diabetes duration, body mass index, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and serum chemerin levels differed significantly among the groups (all <em>P</em> &lt; 0.001), whereas the creatinine level did not (<em>P</em> &gt; 0.05). The serum chemerin level was significantly higher in group 4 than in groups 3 and 2, in group 3 than in group 2, and in groups 3 and 4 than in group 1 (all <em>P</em> &lt; 0.001). However, it was comparable between groups 1 and 2 (<em>P</em> &gt; 0.05). It correlated with the duration of T1DM and HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and creatinine levels but not with age.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Patients with T1DM with DR showed higher serum chemerin levels than those with T1DM without DR or healthy individuals. Serum chemerin levels were higher in those with PDR than in those with NPDR. Thus, serum chemerin levels are a potential biomarker of the development and severity of DR in patients with T1DM. Nevertheless, future diagnostic accuracy studies are required to confirm these potential applications.</p> Ahmed Gomaa Elmahdy Mohamed Mohamed-Aly Ibrahim Omar Hassan Salama HossamEldinAbdelmonem Ziada Mahmoud Mohammed Ali Ghada F Elmohaseb Eman MI Youssef Eman Saad Bayoumy Marwa Ahmed Bayomy Sanaa Ahmed Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-03 2023-02-03 11 4 171 178 10.51329/mehdiophthal1461 Sustainability of the effect of optical intervention on the reading performance of children with dyslexia <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Dyslexia is a learning disability associated with reading difficulties in children. Due to the potential of poor school outcomes interventions have been employed to help students with dyslexia read. This study was aimed at identifying the sustainability of the effect of combined Visual Tracking Magnifier (VTM) and Ministry of Education (MOE) interventions and MOE intervention alone on the reading performance of school children with dyslexia after discontinuation of intervention.</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>This prospective, interventional study was conducted on primary school children with dyslexia aged 8 – 11 years. The participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic and optometric examinations and were categorized into groups A, B, and C, comprising primary school children at level 1 or 2. Groups A and B received combined VTM and MOE interventions for 12 and 24 weeks, respectively, and group C received MOE intervention alone. The reading performance was assessed at baseline and 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-intervention.<strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Both components of the reading performance improved significantly for school children at both levels in all study groups (all <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). However, the reading performance improvement was only approximately 28% in group C and 38% – 50% in groups A and B. In group A, students at level 1 showed significantly improved reading speed from baseline to 12 weeks post-VTM intervention and reading rate from baseline to 24 weeks post-VTM intervention (both <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). Students at level 2 showed significantly improved reading speed and rate from baseline to 12 and 24 weeks post-VTM intervention (all <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). In group B, students at both levels showed significantly improved reading speed and rate from baseline to 24 and 36 weeks post-VTM intervention (all <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). Students at level 2 showed significantly improved reading speed 12 weeks after cessation of intervention (at 36 weeks post-VTM intervention) compared to 24 weeks post-VTM intervention (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). The improvement remaining stable 12 weeks after discontinuation of intervention indicated a sustained effect.<strong>Conclusions:&nbsp;</strong>Combined or individual intervention improved the reading performance of school children with dyslexia at levels 1 and 2. However, combined intervention showed a better reading improvement effect. Improvement in the reading performance was maintained after discontinuation of the VTM intervention. Further interventional studies with a longer study period after discontinuation of this optical intervention are required to confirm the long-term sustainability of its positive effects on the reading performance of school children with dyslexia.</p> Rokiah Omar Muhammad Hafizuddin Mazuwir Chiranjib Majumder Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-03 2023-02-03 11 4 179 188 10.51329/mehdiophthal1462 Safety and efficacy of eye drops from umbilical cord blood platelet lysate to treat resistant corneal ulcer <p><strong>Background:</strong> Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a novel treatment of resistant corneal ulcers owing to the unique anti-inflammatory molecules and growth factors it contains. Platelet lysates are a potential future alternative. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of human UCB platelet lysate in treating resistant corneal ulcers.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was prospective, non-comparative, interventional case series involving 40 eyes of patients aged 6 – 65 years with persistent corneal ulcers from the Mansoura Ophthalmic Center and Mansoura Research Center for Cord Stem Cells. Patients were classified according to the cause of persistent corneal ulcer into four groups: group I, including 14 eyes with dry eye disease; group II, including six eyes post-keratoplasty; group III, including four eyes with corneal chemical burn; and group IV, including 16 eyes with persistent corneal ulcer from other causes. All participants underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations, and baseline and final best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) were recorded. Eye drops were prepared from UCB platelet lysate and administered to all patients along with detailed meticulous instructions for the method of use. Clinical progression of wound healing was continuously observed. The treatment response was identified as complete healing, improvement, or treatment failure.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>BCDVA improved significantly in all studied groups (all <em>P </em>&lt; 0.05). In group I, complete healing, improvement, and treatment failure occurred in 71%, 29%, and 0% of cases. In group II, complete healing, improvement, and treatment failure occurred in 67%, 33%, and 0% of cases. In group III, complete healing, improvement, and treatment failure occurred in 50%, 50%, and 0% of cases. In group IV, complete healing, improvement, and treatment failure occurred in 63%, 12%, and 25% of cases. No adverse events associated with the treatment were observed or subjectively self-reports in the study period.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Eye drops from UCB platelet lysate were a novel therapeutic blood component with unique growth factors and anti-inflammatory compounds that could be an effective and safe treatment option in managing persistent corneal ulcers of different causes. A future randomized clinical trial with a large sample size and a longer follow-up is required to confirm these preliminary outcomes.</p> Rania Kamel Farag Mervat Dawood Maher Elesawi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-03 2023-02-03 11 4 189 202 10.51329/mehdiophthal1463