Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in the management of macular edema: A review of the literature
Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology,
Vol. 11 No. 1 (2022),
1 April 2022
AbstractBackground: Macular edema (ME) is a vision-threatening condition that commonly develops as a consequence of ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, retinal vaso-occlusion of the central retinal vein and its branches, diabetic retinopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy, uveitis, retinitis pigmentosa, pseudophakia, ocular trauma, and drug toxicity. The treatment of ME remains challenging, although steroids and vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors are available. Cost-effective therapy using a noninvasive administration route is required. This study aimed at reviewing the role of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) in the management of ME.
Methods: A literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar for studies from January 2000 to March 2022. The following keywords were used in various combinations: “macular edema”, “carbonic anhydrase”, “carbonic anhydrase inhibitors”, “acetazolamide”, “dorzolamide”, and “brinzolamide”.
Results: Articles with high or medium clinical relevance were selected for this review. We found that multiple studies have demonstrated the relevance and efficacy rates of CAIs in the management of ME. Most published studies focused on acetazolamide and dorzolamide, with nearly all studies reporting therapeutic responses.
Conclusions: ME is the leading cause of vision loss and requires noninvasive and cost-effective pharmacotherapy. With progress in the understanding of ME, particularly the role of carbonic anhydrase as a key driver, CAIs are the focus of research. Further optimization of the choice of CAIs and retinal bioavailability, potentially with nanoparticle formulations, is required to enable the effective management of ME. Further research is warranted to address the therapeutic effects of CAIs in different formulations.
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