Aims and Scope
Founded in the summer of 2020, Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry, is an international, open-access, double-blinded peer-reviewed, quarterly journal that considers publications related to optometry. The aim is to present a scientific medium of communication for researchers in the field of optometry. The journal is of interest to a broad audience of visual scientists and publishes original articles, reviews, case reports, and commentaries after a rigorous peer-review process. The journal is affiliated to and published by the "IVORC" (Registration File Number: 803630055), a registered non-profit corporation in Austin, Texas, United States. We provide English editing for papers as a complimentary free-of-charge service.

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A prospective contralateral eye comparison of the tolerability of two artificial tears with different physical properties in patients with dry eye disease

Fatin Amalina Che Arif, Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal

Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2023), 4 April 2023 , Page 1-6

Background: Artificial tears (ATs) are widely used in ophthalmic practice with various formulations, mainly as a treatment for dry eye, owing to their rapid ability to alleviate the signs and symptoms of this condition. We aimed to investigate drop comfort and subjective ocular symptoms after instillation of the following ATs with different physical properties: Optive® non-preservative (OUD) and Systane® Hydration non-preservative (SHUD).
Methods: This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized, contralateral eye comparison study. A rheometer and a digital pH meter were used to evaluate the viscosity and pH of both ATs prior to instillation. We recruited 36 patients with dry eye disease. Single standardized AT volumes were set using a micropipette for all patients. Ocular discomfort was assessed using the Ora Calibra™ Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire (OOD4SQ; 0 – 5 scale) before and 60 min after instillation. Drop comfort was assessed using the Ora Calibra™ Drop Comfort Scale (0 – 10 scale) immediately after AT instillation. The difference in the drop comfort score (DCS) between the two ATs and ocular discomfort scores using OOD4SQ before and 60 min after instillation of each AT were recorded and compared.
Results: The viscosities and pH of SHUD and OUD were 32.73 centipoise (cP) and 7.74 and 14.42 cP and 7.19, respectively. The mean (standard deviation) DCS was higher in the SHUD group than in the OUD group (1.83 [1.21] versus 1.67 [1.12]); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was a significant reduction in all parameters of OOD4SQ including overall discomfort, burning, dryness, grittiness, and stinging 60 min after OUD instillation (all P < 0.05), while a significant difference was only noted in dryness (P < 0.05) in the SHUD group.
Conclusions: OUD, which has a lower viscosity and pH compared to SHUD, provides less subjective sensation and better ocular comfort 60 min after instillation. Further randomized clinical trials including patients with dry eye disease of different severities, larger sample sizes, and longer follow-up periods are required to verify our findings.

Corneal topography and higher-order aberrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Amir Asharlous , Abbas Riazi , Alireza Jamali , Sattar Rajabi, Masoud Rahimi , Ali Akbarzadeh, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Samira Janani, Taghi Naghdi

Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2023), 4 April 2023 , Page 7-16

Background: Changes in blood sugar levels cause alterations in the anterior segment and retina of the eye. This study was aimed at evaluating corneal topography, aberrometry, and corneal asphericity in patients with treatment-naive type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: Participants with treatment-naive T2DM were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The inclusion criteria were glycated hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) greater than or equal to 7.5% and absence of other ocular or systemic diseases. Patients who refused to participate or had a history of topical or systemic steroid use, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, anemia, prior ocular disorder or surgery, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, cataract, active ocular inflammatory or infectious disease, or contact lens use were excluded. All participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. The Pentacam HR Scheimpflug tomography system (Pentacam High Resolution; Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) was used to measure the anterior-segment parameters.
Results: Sixty eyes of 30 patients with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1 were included; the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age and Hb A1c were 51.63 (6.73) years and 8.82% (1.31%), respectively. The mean (SD) values of central corneal thickness, root mean square (RMS) of total aberration, RMS of lower-order aberrations, RMS of higher-order aberrations, spherical aberration, 0° coma, 90° coma, flat anterior keratometry (K), steep anterior K, mean anterior K, anterior topographic astigmatism, flat posterior K, steep posterior K, mean posterior K, posterior topographic astigmatism, anterior corneal asphericity, and posterior corneal asphericity were 540.22 (24.47) µm, 1.72 (0.73) µm, 1.63 (0.73) µm, 0.51 (0.17) µm, + 0.31 (0.09) µm, - 0.06 (0.15) diopters (D), 0.003 (0.21) D, 43.87 (1.49) D, 44.69 (1.50) D, 44.28 (1.44) D, + 0.82 (0.83) D, - 6.25 (0.27) D, - 6.55 (0.31) D, - 6.40 (0.28) D, - 0.30 (0.15) D, - 0.32 (0.12) Q-value, and - 0.47 (0.17) Q-value, respectively.
Conclusions: We presented the mean values of Pentacam parameters for aberrometry, keratometry, and corneal asphericity in patients with treatment-naive T2DM. These values could serve as a baseline for prospective monitoring of the ocular health status of this cohort and for comparison with future cohorts of patients with well-controlled T2DM. Further studies are required to assess the presence and applicability of ocular changes following intensive blood glucose control in T2DM and further understand the related pathophysiology.

Binocular vision parameters and body mass index

Nivedhitha Elangovan, Deepa Bangalore Muniyappa Shanmugham

Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2023), 4 April 2023 , Page 17-24

Background: Abnormal body mass Index (BMI) can adversely affect binocular vision. We aimed to assess the presence of possible differences in binocular vision parameters among the four BMI categories.
Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, we enrolled young adults and categorized them into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese groups based on their BMI. A complete orthoptic evaluation was performed to assess the mean values of binocular vision skills.
Results: We recruited 120 participants with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.30 (1.80) years with best-corrected distance and near visual acuities of 6/6 and N6, respectively. The frequency of exophoria > 4 PD was high in the obese group.  The frequency of binocular vision dysfunction was higher in the obese and underweight groups, with vergence dysfunction being the most common. The mean values for near negative fusional vergence (NFV), distance positive fusional vergence (PFV), negative relative accommodation, positive relative accommodation, monocular accommodation facility (AF), and monocular estimation method were comparable among the groups (all P > 0.05). The obese group had significantly receded near point of convergence, and reduced accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio and binocular AF than the normal, overweight, and underweight groups (all P < 0.05). The distance and near vergence facilities were significantly lower in the obese group than in the overweight and normal groups, and the distance vergence facility was significantly lower than in the underweight group (all P < 0.05). The mean values of distance NFV and near PFV in the obese group were significantly lower compared to the normal and overweight groups, and the mean values of distance NFV were significantly lower compared to the underweight group (all P < 0.05). The mean values of near PFV were significantly lower in the underweight group than in the overweight group (both P < 0.05). Both the underweight and obese groups had a significantly lower amplitude of accommodation compared to the normal group (both P < 0.05).
Conclusions: The frequency of binocular vision dysfunction was higher in the obese and underweight groups. Most convergence and some accommodation parameters were adversely affected in individuals with obesity. Being underweight adversely affects certain binocular vision skills. Further studies are required to determine the relevance of BMI as a predictor of binocular vision abnormalities.

Pediatric cycloplegic refraction

Mahmoud Eltagoury, Ehab Ghoneim

Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2023), 4 April 2023 , Page 25-33

Background: Cycloplegic refraction is an essential part of the pediatric ophthalmic assessment and is the cornerstone of strabismus evaluation. This narrative review aimed to ascertain the current scope of practice for cycloplegic refraction in the pediatric population.
Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted using ScienceDirect, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases using the following search terms: cyclopentolate, tropicamide, pediatric cycloplegia, atropine, homatropine, manual retinoscope, handheld autorefractometer, spherical errors, and no spherical errors of refraction in articles published from January 2000 to December 2022. Relevant retrieved references and practical points concerning pediatric cycloplegic refraction were summarized.
Results: Atropine has the most potent cycloplegic effect and is best used in cases of severe accommodative esotropia. Because of the unfavorable side effects and risks associated with atropine, cyclopentolate has been found to provide quite effective cycloplegia, even for moderate to severe hyperopia, and has become the standard agent for traditional pediatric cycloplegic exams. Tropicamide has also been shown to provide adequate cycloplegia while being less toxic and causing fewer side effects. Tropicamide has the fewest side effects and toxicity of all agents, while atropine has the most. Cyclopentolate is an exceptionally safe cycloplegic agent. To detect spherical and non-spherical refractive errors, refraction can be performed using a handheld autorefractometer or a manual retinoscope, as well as under general anesthesia in some cases. The optimal time to wear eyeglasses to maintain binocular vision and avoid amblyopia is also considered.
Conclusions: Accommodative power in children is at its maximum, and this interferes with reliable - assessment of refraction. Therefore, the use of cycloplegic refraction is mandatory during childhood to obtain actual refraction, which is considered the cornerstone for eyeglass prescription. Knowledge of the various cycloplegic agents used in childhood refraction is important for ophthalmologists and optometrists to obtain safe and effective cycloplegia. High refractive errors, as well as the presence of anisometropia or squint, necessitate the use of eyeglasses as early as childhood to maintain binocularity and depth perception.

Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy misdiagnosed as giant cell arteritis: a challenging case

Nickolas K Garson, Shivani Shah, Nazanin Ebrahimiadib, Siva SR Iyer, Ramak Roohipourmoallai

Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2023), 4 April 2023 , Page 34-40

Background: Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) is a rare autoimmune retinopathy that is challenging to diagnose and treat. It usually presents with subtle fundus changes and severe visual symptoms. Herein, we report a challenging case of AZOOR, emphasizing that multimodal imaging could be valuable in diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response.
Case Presentation: A 53-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a one-week history of subacute, severe, painless vision loss without photopsia in her right eye. Her best-corrected distance visual acuity was 20/800 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination findings were unremarkable, and intraocular pressure was normal in both eyes. Initially, fundus examination findings appeared normal; however, serum levels of inflammatory markers were elevated. Brain and orbital magnetic resonance imaging results were unremarkable. A relative afferent pupillary defect was present in subsequent follow-up examinations at the hospital. The patient initially received a diagnosis of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy secondary to occult giant cell arteritis, underwent steroid treatment, and was evaluated by rheumatology and neurology consultants. Both consultants concurred with the presumed diagnosis. Subsequent multimodal imaging in the ophthalmology clinic revealed a trizonal pattern of fundus autofluorescence. Corresponding to these areas, we noted a loss of the ellipsoid zone on optical coherence tomography, depression on multifocal electroretinogram, and scotoma on visual field testing. Accordingly, the diagnosis of AZOOR was made. The patient was referred back to the rheumatologist for initiation of steroid-sparing treatment, and methotrexate was administered. Five months after the initial presentation, the patient showed significant visual field improvement in both eyes.
Conclusions: Eye care practitioners should consider AZOOR in the differential diagnosis of patients with subacute painless severe unilateral vision loss and unremarkable findings on fundus examination. Multimodal imaging could be valuable in diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response, as observed in the current case. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the value of multimodal imaging and the available management options for AZOOR.

Paracentral acute middle maculopathy progressing to central retinal artery occlusion following coronavirus disease vaccination: a multimodal imaging report

Srinivasan Sanjay, Shama Sharief , Santosh Gopikrishna Gadde, Balughatta Poornachandra

Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry, Vol. 4 No. 1 (2023), 4 April 2023 , Page 41-49

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines can cause adverse ocular effects, including vascular insults, acute macular neuroretinopathy, paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM), ophthalmic vein thrombosis, Graves’ disease, arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (A-AION), and nonarteritic AION. Here, we report a case of unilateral PAMM progressing to central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) after COVID-19 vaccination, identified using multimodal imaging.
Case Presentation: A 24-year-old healthy man presented with unilateral progressive blurring of vision in the right eye. He had a recent history of fever without rashes 2 weeks after coronavirus disease vaccination. He was diagnosed with PAMM in the right eye at a local hospital and treated with a tapering dose of oral steroids. At presentation, he showed progressive blurring of vision in the right eye and the best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) was 20/60. The anterior segment was normal. Fundus examination revealed a pale optic disc with arteriolar attenuation and barrage laser scarring at the inferotemporal periphery. CRAO was diagnosed based on the right eye findings. The patient underwent multimodal imaging, including wide-field fundus photography using Optos® (Optos Carfornia®, Optos Inc., Dunfermline, United Kingdom), multicolor imaging with Spectralis™ (Heidelberg Retinal Angiograph; Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Dossenheim, Germany), fundus fluorescence angiography (Heidelberg Retinal Angiograph; Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Dossenheim, Germany), and optical coherence tomography angiography (ANGIOVUE, OPTOVUE, Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm. The condition progressed from PAMM to CRAO during the oral steroid treatment course. At the 2-month follow-up, the right eye BCDVA had improved to 20/50, with fundus findings remaining the same as at the previous visit.
Conclusions: This was the first report of a young patient with PAMM presenting with focal vascular occlusion that evolved to global occlusion in the form of CRAO in the absence of systemic vascular risk factors and with a normal coagulation profile. This case suggests that arterial occlusion may exert a temporary effect secondary to COVISHIELD™ vaccination. Randomized controlled trials and case – control studies on the role of vaccination in precipitating thromboembolic events in healthy individuals would provide insight into the causation.