Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to optic disc pit maculopathy in children
Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry,
Vol. 2 No. 1 (2021),
16 June 2021
AbstractBackground: Optic disc pit (ODP) is a rare congenital defect of the optic disc that can lead to maculopathy and gradual visual impairment. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to ODP maculopathy (ODP-M) in children.
Methods: A thorough literature search was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE database from 1960 to 2020. An additional search was conducted using Google Scholar for completeness.
Results: ODP-M is characterized by the accumulation of subretinal and/or intraretinal fluid. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms are not fully understood, and the origin of the fluid remains unknown. Although ODP-M is more likely to occur during the third or fourth decade of life, cases of children with serous retinal detachment have been recorded. Early diagnosis of ODP-M and prompt, appropriate management are crucial, particularly in patients of amblyogenic age. In adults, ODP-M may resolve spontaneously, but most cases require surgical intervention to prevent permanent loss of vision. However, the fact that ODP-M may spontaneously resolve in children cannot be ignored. Various surgical methods have been described, including pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with various techniques, including laser photocoagulation, intravitreal gas injection, and macular buckling.
Conclusions: PPV remains the mainstay surgical approach for ODP-M. However, ODP-M may differ between children and adults. Children constitute a unique population of patients that require a different and probably more tailor-made approach. Detailed clinical examination, combined with a thorough analysis of retinal imaging, may improve our understanding of the background and pathophysiology of the disease and eventually provide us with new insights into the management of ODP-M in the pediatric population.
- congenital anomalies
- optic disc pit
- optic disc pit maculopathy
- retinal imaging
- surgical treatment
- pars plana vitrectomy
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