Ocular manifestations of Parkinson disease
Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry,
Vol. 1 No. 1 (2020),
31 August 2020
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We aimed to review both the disease and the drug-related ocular manifestations of PD.
Methods: In this manuscript, we have reviewed and summarized existing literature on the ocular manifestations and drug-related complications of PD. We have also discussed the use of current noninvasive imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), for the early diagnosis and monitoring of PD.
Results: Impaired color vision, reduced stereopsis, reduced contrast sensitivity, pupillary abnormalities, eye movement disorders, convergence insufficiency, dry eye syndrome, glaucoma, visual dysfunctions, retinal abnormalities, and drug-related side effects were among the listed ocular manifestations of PD. There is a large knowledge gap regarding the type of glaucoma affecting PD patients-whether it is open-angle or other types. Further case studies and long-term follow-ups during PD progression are necessary to fill this gap. Patient compliance with follow-up visits for more visual field tests and OCT during PD progression may become problematic when dementia and cognitive impairment occur.
Conclusions: There is a general need for clinicians to perform further tests and more visual examinations to rule out ocular manifestations. Furthermore, additional clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the use of different types of OCT findings as biomarkers of PD progression. This would aid in early diagnosis and in delaying disease progression, if treated promptly.