Allergic Conjunctivitis in Patients with Respiratory Allergic Symptoms; a Retrospective Study in Greece
Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol,
Here, we report on the prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and positive skin prick test (SPT) results in relation to respiratory allergic conditions among patients with symptoms of allergies at a respiratory outpatient clinic. A questionnaire survey of symptoms (i.e., asthma-like, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis symptoms) involving 1522 patients was carried out. The responses of 1242 patients indicated that they had allergic conjunctivitis, asthma, rhinitis, or a combination of these conditions, and 869 of these patients underwent SPTs that assessed responses to 40 allergens.
Allergic conjunctivitis was found to be very common (40%, 497 out of 1242 patients) among those with symptoms of allergies. Conjunctivitis was slightly more common among women, while rhinitis was more common among men. Patients with both conjunctivitis and rhinitis were more likely to undergo SPTs, and they had a higher rate of positive SPTs. The coexistence of two or more comorbidities increased the risk of having an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy (based on the SPT results) compared to having each of the conditions alone. In conclusion, allergic conjunctivitis can occur either alone or with asthma and/or rhinitis. It is not always accompanied by rhinitis, but the coexistence of these conditions was the strongest indicator of IgE-mediated allergies.
How to Cite
Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2015. Page 22-78.
Bousquet J, Reid J, van Weel C, Baena Cagnani C, Canonica GW, Demoly P, Denburg J, Fokkens WJ, Grouse L, Mullol K, Ohta K, Schermer T, Valovirta E, Zhong N, Zuberbier T. Allergic rhinitis management pocket reference 2008. Allergy. 2008 Aug;63(8):990-6. PMID: 18691301.
Brozek JL, Bousquet J, Baena-Cagnani CE, Bonini S, Canonica GW, Casale TB, van Wijk RG, Ohta K, Zuberbier T, Schünemann HJ; Global Allergy and Asthma European Network.; Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines: 2010 revision. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep;126(3):466-76. PMID: 20816182.
Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema: ISAAC. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Steering Committee. Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1225-32. PMID: 9643741.
Retrieved from https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/continuousnhanes/documents.aspx?BeginYear=2005 [database on the Internet](2017, Jaunary 15).
Almaliotis D, Michailopoulos P, Gioulekas D, Giouleka P, Papakosta D, Siempis T, Karampatakis V. Allergic conjunctivitis and the most common allergens in Northern Greece. World Allergy Organ J. 2013 Jul 16;6(1):12. PMID: 23866689.
Nathan RA, Meltzer EO, Seiner JC, Storms W. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the United States. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1997 Jun 1;99(6):S808-14.
Hesselmar B, Aberg B, Eriksson B, Aberg N. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, eczema, and sensitization in two areas with differing climates. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2001 Aug;12(4):208-15. PMID: 11555318.
Petricek I, Prost M, Popova A. The differential diagnosis of red eye: a survey of medical practitioners from Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Ophthalmologica. 2006;220(4):229-37. PubMed PMID: 16785753.
Katelaris CH. Ocular allergy in the Asia Pacific region. Asia Pac Allergy. 2011 Oct;1(3):108-14. PMID: 22053306.
Bielory L. Ocular allergy overview. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;28(1):1-23. PMID: 18282543.
Position paper: Allergen standardization and skin tests. The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Allergy. 1993;48(14 Suppl):48-82. PMID: 8342740.
Bernstein IL, Storms WW. Practice parameters for allergy diagnostic testing. Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Asthma. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1995 Dec;75(6 Pt 2):543-625. PMID: 8521115.
Allergen skin testing. Board of Directors. American Academy of Allergy and Immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993 Nov;92(5):636-7. PMID: 8227853.
Riedi CA, Rosario NA. Prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis: a missed opportunity? Allergy. 2010 Jan;65(1):131-2. PMID: 20078506.
Gradman J, Wolthers OD. Allergic conjunctivitis in children with asthma, rhinitis and eczema in a secondary outpatient clinic. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2006 Nov;17(7):524-6. Erratum in: Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2007 Feb;18(1):90. PMID: 17014628.
Singla JP, Parashar Y. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in children with recurrent wheeze. Indian Pediatr. 2009 Mar;46(3):262. PMID: 19346577.
Baig R, Ali AW, Ali T, Ali A, Shah MN, Sarfaraz A, Ahmad K. Prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis in school children of Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010 May;60(5):371-3. PMID: 20527610.
Ciprandi G, Vizzaccaro A, Cirillo I, Cerqueti P, Canonica GW. Prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis in Italian young men. Allergy. 1996 Jul;51(7):517-8. PMID: 8863932.
- Abstract Viewed: 2129 times
- Full Text PDF Downloaded: 2112 times