Smartphone-based Video of Demodex folliculorum In Biopsied Human Eyelash Follicles

Mithaq Vahedi, Gavin Davis, Michael James Coleman, Brian Steven Garrett, Allen Omid Eghrari

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2015), 1 June 2015 , Page 36-38

The ability of smartphone technology to document static microscopy images has been well documented and is gaining widespread use in ophthalmology, where slit-lamp biomicroscopy is frequently utilized. However, little has been described regarding the use of smartphone technology to relay video of tissue microscopy results to patients, particularly when a tissue sample integrates motility of organisms as a characteristic feature of the disease. Here, we describe the method to use smartphone video to document motility of Demodex folliculorum in human eyelashes, individual results of which can be shown to patients for education and counseling purposes. The use of smartphone video in documenting the motility of organisms may prove to be beneficial in a variety of medical fields; producers of electronic medical records, therefore, may find it helpful to integrate video drop box tools.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Scientometric Analysis

Shahrokh Ramin, Masoud Soheilian, Gholamreza Habibi, Roghayeh Ghazavi, Reza Gharebaghi, Fatemeh Heidary

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2015), 1 June 2015 , Page 39-49

Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a major cause of central blindness among working aged adults across the world. Systematic research planning on any subject, including ARMD is in need of solid data regarding previous efforts in this field and to identify the gaps in the research. This study aimed to elucidate the most important trends, directions, and gap in this subject.

The data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information were used to perform a bibliometric analysis of the scientific productions (1993–2013) about ARMD. Specific parameters related to ARMD were analyzed to obtain a view of the topic’s structure, history, and document relationships. Additionally, the trends and authors in the most influential publications were analyzed.

The number of articles in this field was found constantly increasing. Most highly cited articles addressed genetic epidemiology and clinical research topics in this field.  During the past 3 years, there has been a trend toward biomarker research.

Through performing the first scientometric survey on ARMD research, we analyzed the characteristics of papers and the trends in scientific production.  We also identified some of the critical gaps in the current research efforts that would help in large-scale research strategic planning.

Psychosis, Mood and Behavioral Disorders in Usher Syndrome: Review of the Literature

Daniela Domanico, Serena Fragiotta, Alessandro Cutini, Pier Luigi Grenga, Enzo Maria Vingolo

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2015), 1 June 2015 , Page 50-55

The aim of this review is to focus the current knowledge about mental and behavioral disorders in Usher syndrome. Previous studies described the presence of various mental disorders associated with Usher syndrome, suggesting possible mechanisms of association between these disorders. The most common manifestations are schizophrenia-like disorder and psychotic symptoms. Mood and behavioral disorders are rarely described, and often are associated with more complex cases in co-occurrence with other psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies reported diffuse involvement of central nervous system (CNS) in Usher patients, suggesting a possible role of CNS damage in the pathogenesis of psychiatric manifestations. Genetic hypothesis and stress-related theories have also been proposed.

Cutting Edge of Traumatic Maculopathy with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography – A Review

Sílvia Mendes, António Campos, Joana Campos, Arminda Neves, Diana Beselga, Cristina Fernandes, João Paulo Castro Sousa

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2015), 1 June 2015 , Page 56-63

This article reviews clinically relevant data regarding traumatic maculopathy (TM), frequently observed in clinical practice, especially due to sport or traffic accident injuries. It is characterized by transient gray-whitish retinal coloration and reduction of visual acuity (VA) with closed, blunt object globe trauma of their prior. It may be limited to the posterior pole (Berlin’s edema), or peripheral areas of the retina. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) provides detail insight using high resolution cross-sectional tomographs of the ocular tissue. It is a potent non-invasive tool for the clinician to follow-up. Clinicians are, thereby empowered with a tool that enables evaluation of the retinal status and allows for prediction of the prognosis. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography supports the idea that the major site of injury is in the photoreceptor and layers of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Depending on the severity of the trauma, SD-OCT may reveal differential optical densities of intraretinal spaces ranging from disappearance of the thin hyporeflective optical space in mild lesions, or areas of disruption of the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction and hyperreflectivity of the overlying retina, pigment disorders and retinal atrophy, in more severe cases. The prognosis for recovery of vision is generally good, and improvement occurs within 3-4 weeks.

Ocular Effects of Niacin: A Review of the Literature

Daniela Domanico, Francesca Verboschi, Simona Altimari, Luigi Zompatori, Enzo Maria Vingolo

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 4 No. 2 (2015), 1 June 2015 , Page 64-70

Cystoid macular edema is a condition that involves the macula, caused by an accumulation of extracellular fluid in the macular region with secondary formation of multiple cystic spaces. This condition is provoked by a variety of pathological conditions such as intraocular inflammation, central or branch retinal vein occlusion, diabetic retinopathy and most commonly following cataract extraction, hereditary retinal dystrophies, and topical or systemic assumption of drugs. Niacin is a vitamin preparation usually used for the treatment of lipid disorders. The treatment with niacin, alone or in combination with other lipid-lowering agents, significantly reduces total mortality and coronary events and slows down the progression of and induces the regression of coronary atherosclerosis. Several cases of niacin-induced cystoid macular edema have been reported with different dosages.