Simultaneous Therapy with Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant and Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Macular Edema

Felipe L. de ANDRADE, Flavio S. LOPES, Gabriel C. de ANDRADE, Tiago S. PRATA, Andre MAIA

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 5 No. 1 (2016), 1 March 2016 , Page 4-9

To investigate the safety profile and benefits of a short-term simultaneous treatment regimen combining two drugs—an intravitreal implant of dexamethasone with an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab—in patients with macular edema. This was a retrospective, non-randomized, open-label case series study.  Patients were treated between April 2014 and July 2015 and were diagnosed with recurrent macular edema secondary to diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion. They underwent simultaneous treatment with an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg) and an intravitreal implant of dexamethasone (0.7 mg). Patients were evaluated at baseline and at each subsequent visit with a complete ophthalmological examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. They were examined 24 hours after the treatment, and then followed up after 30 days and 60 days. Twenty patients (representing 20 eyes) were included in the study. At the time of injection (i.e., baseline), the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.758 ± 0.42 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). It improved significantly to 0.51 ± 0.33 logMAR at 1 month and to 0.5 ± 0.34 logMAR at 2 months (P ≤ 0.03). The median baseline central macular thickness (CMT) was 542 µm (interquartile range, 466 – 751 µm). The median CMT decreased significantly to 321 µm (interquartile range, 288–381 µm) at 1 month and 310 µm (interquartile range, 286 – 354 µm) at 2 months (P ≤ 0.0002). The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) increased from 14.9 ± 2.29 mmHg (at baseline) to 16.5 ± 2.99 mmHg (P = 0.04) after 2 months. Two (10%) eyes showed cataract progression. There were no other ocular or systemic complications for the duration of this study. Simultaneous therapy combining a dexamethasone implant plus bevacizumab for macular edema may be an attractive treatment regimen with an acceptable safety profile.

Ex-Press Mini-Implant in the Management of Ocular Hypertension Secondary to Silicone Oil Tamponed


Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 5 No. 1 (2016), 1 March 2016 , Page 10-14

This study was designed to compare the success of patients with ocular hypertension, secondary to pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade, who received an Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device P50 (Alcon Laboratories, Inc. Fort Worth, Texas, USA) to those who had conventional trabeculectomy. The records of 10 eyes of 10 consecutive subjects who had Ex-press implants and 9 eyes of 9 consecutive controls who had trabeculectomy procedures were reviewed. Success was defined as the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients who did not require further glaucoma surgery in the eye of note during the entire follow-up. IOP was reduced by 10.3 ± 9.7 mmHg (range -31 to 3) in the Ex-PRESS group and by 13.9 ± 11.4 mmHg (range -35 to -4) in the trabeculectomy group. The difference in the percentage of IOP reduction between the standard trabeculectomy group (42.7%) and the Ex-PRESS group (35.9%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.72). The Ex-PRESS device seems to be at least as effective as the standard trabeculectomy in lowering the IOP of patients with hypertension secondary to pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Even though the data suggested that the Ex-PRESS device did not result in an overall greater reduction in IOP than trabeculectomy, this does not reach statistical significance.

Nodular Scleritis in Association with Panuveitis in Behçet’s Disease

Ali Osman SAATCI, Ziya AYHAN, Fatos ONEN, Zeynep OZBEK, Ismet DURAK

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 5 No. 1 (2016), 1 March 2016 , Page 15-17

This case report involves a 32-year-old man with Behçet’s disease who had simultaneous bilateral anterior uveitis, unilateral nodular scleritis, and occlusive vasculitis with retinal hemorrhages. Although scleritis is not a classical feature of Behçet’s disease, a diagnosis of Behçet’s disease should be considered in patients with scleritis.

Primary Repair of Moderate Severity Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: A Critical Decision-Making Algorithm


Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 5 No. 1 (2016), 1 March 2016 , Page 18-31

We reviewed all the available data regarding the current management of non-complex rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and aimed to propose a new decision-making algorithm aimed to improve the single surgery success rate for mid-severity rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. An online review of the Pubmed database was performed. We searched for all available manuscripts about the anatomical and functional outcomes after the surgical management, by either scleral buckle or primary pars plana vitrectomy, of retinal detachment. The search was limited to articles published from January 1995 to December 2015. All articles obtained from the search were carefully screened and their references were manually reviewed for additional relevant data. Our search specifically focused on preoperative clinical data that were associated with the surgical outcomes. After categorizing the available data according to their level of evidence, with randomized-controlled clinical trials as the highest possible level of evidence, followed by retrospective studies, and retrospective case series as the lowest level of evidence, we proceeded to design a logical decision-making algorithm, enhanced by our experiences as retinal surgeons. A total of 7 randomized-controlled clinical trials, 19 retrospective studies, and 9 case series were considered. Additional articles were also included in order to support the observations further. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a potentially blinding disorder. Its surgical management seems to depend more on a surgeon´s preference than solid scientific data or is based on a good clinical history and examination. The algorithms proposed herein strive to offer a more rational approach to improve both anatomical and functional outcomes after the first surgery.

Short-term Outcomes of Saffron Supplementation in Patients with Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized Trial

Alireza LASHAY, Gholamreza SADOUGH, Elham ASHRAFI, Mohammadreza LASHAY, Morteza MOVASSAT, Shahin AKHONDZADEH

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 5 No. 1 (2016), 1 March 2016 , Page 32-38

In modern pharmacological medicine, saffron is used for various purposes due to its antioxidant effect. This study evaluated retinal function after treatment with saffron supplementation during a follow-up period of 6 months to provide further insight into the efficacy and safety considerations of this treatment. Sixty patients with wet or dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were randomly assigned to receive oral saffron 30 mg/d or placebo supplementation for 6 months. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), electroretinography (ERG), fluorescein angiography, and visual acuity testing were performed at baseline and 3 and 6 months after treatment. The main outcome measures were OCT, ERG amplitude, and implicit time. Six months after treatment, no statistically significant decrease in OCT results was observed between the groups with dry AMD (P = 0.282). However, there was a statistically significant increase in ERG results between the groups at 3 months after treatment (P = 0.027). In addition, there was a significant decrease in OCT results between groups with wet AMD at the follow-up (P = 0.05). Finally, there was a significant increase in ERG findings between the groups with wet AMD at 3 months after treatment (P = 0.01), but these changes decreased at 6 months after treatment (P = 0.213). Daily supplementation with 30 mg of saffron for 6 months may result in a mid-term, significant improvement in retinal function in patients with AMD.