Comparison of the efficacy of lotrafilcon B and comfilcon A silicone hydrogel bandage contact lenses after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy

Nancy M. Lotfy, Tariq Alasbali, Abdulrahman M. Alsharif , Saeed M Al- Gehedan, Sabah Jastaneiah, Ashraf Al-Hazaimeh, Hiba Ali, Rajiv Khandekar

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 10 No. 2 (2021), 5 August 2021 , Page 43-49

Background: At completion of transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (t-PRK) surgery, the eye is usually fitted with a bandage contact lens to reduce discomfort and promote epithelial healing. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of eyes fitted with lotrafilcon B versus comfilcon A, silicone hydrogel bandage contact lenses after t-PRK for the correction of low to moderate myopia, with or without astigmatism.
Methods: In this comparative, prospective study, patients with myopia < -6 D with or without astigmatism (< 1.75 D), who underwent t-PRK between January and June 2018, were randomly allocated to the lotrafilcon B and comfilcon A groups. Preoperative characteristics, including age, sex, eye treated, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity, mesopic pupil size, central corneal thickness, and refractive error were recorded. Postoperatively, pain score, UCVA, and corneal epithelial defect size on days 1, 4, and 7 were compared between the two groups.
Results: Twenty-nine eyes were included in each group. Demographic characteristics and preoperative measurements were similar between the two groups. UCVA was significantly improved on day 7 as compared to day 1 in the comfilcon A group (P = 0.03), but remained the same in the lotrafilcon B group (P = 0.70) as on day 1 postoperatively. There was no significant difference in UCVA between the two groups at any follow-up visits (all P > 0.05). The pain score on the first postoperative day was significantly higher in the lotrafilcon B-fitted eyes than in the comfilcon A group (P < 0.001), but was significantly reduced in both groups compared to day 1 (both P < 0.001). The epithelial defect in the comfilcon A group was significantly greater than in the lotrafilcon B group (P < 0.001) at day 1 postoperatively, with significant improvement in both groups (both P < 0.001).
Conclusions: Healing responses were better with lotrafilcon B than with comfilcon A bandage contact lenses. The patients had a greater mean pain score with lotrafilcon B than with comfilcon A lenses on the first postoperative day, yet the final outcome was comparable between the two groups. We did not encounter any postoperative complications related to contact lens wear.

Prognostic biomarkers of chronic diabetic macular edema treated with a fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant

Beatriz Oliveira Lopes, Margarida Sena Brizido, Florence Aerts , Susana Morais Pina, Pedro Santana Simoes, Margarida Isidoro Miranda

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 10 No. 2 (2021), 5 August 2021 , Page 50-58

Background: This study aimed to investigate retinal imaging biomarkers, such as disorganization of the retinal inner layers (DRIL) and/or ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and functional outcomes in eyes treated with 0.2 µg/day of a fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant (FAc) after an insufficient response to previous treatments.
Methods: This was a retrospective comparative study of 18 eyes (15 patients) with persistent and/or recurrent diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with FAc. Eyes were divided according to the number of prior intravitreal treatments: group 1 (n = 8) with less than or equal to 6 injections (early switch) and group 2 (n = 10) with > 6 injections (late switch). Outcomes included percentage of eyes with DRIL and/or EZ disruption at baseline and analysis of the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) using ETDRS letters, central macular thickness (CMT), DRIL, and EZ disruption at the last observation.
Results: Group 2 revealed a significantly higher percentage of DRIL and/or EZ disruption than group 1 (P < 0.05). At the last observation, group 1 revealed a higher percentage of eyes achieving vision stability/improvement, gaining greater than or equal to15 letters, and achieving greater than or equal to 70 letters (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). The mean BCVA gain was 8.8 and 0.7 letters for groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.397). Both groups revealed a significant mean CMT reduction (>20% reduction from the baseline value), without a significant statistical difference between them (P = 0.749). After treatment, most eyes from both groups showed resolution of DRIL and EZ disruption.
Conclusions: Patients with DME presenting with a lower percentage of DRIL and/or EZ disruption at baseline had better functional outcomes, supporting the possible benefit of an early switch to FAc after insufficient response to previous treatments. Future randomized studies with a larger patient cohort are warranted to confirm our conclusions.

Modified capsulorhexis for fluid-filled mature cataracts

Ehab M. Ghoneim

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 10 No. 2 (2021), 5 August 2021 , Page 59-66

Background: The aim of this study was to develop a modified capsulorhexis technique featuring a new maneuver for the removal of subcortical fluid in fluid-filled mature cataracts to avoid high intralenticular pressure.
Methods: This prospective interventional study included 33 eyes with mature cataracts and evidence of subcapsular fluid spaces by slit lamp examination.  For each patient, 20% mannitol was administered intravenously according to the bodyweight 1 h preoperatively. Under peribulbar anesthesia, a 2.2-mm main incision was made, and the anterior chamber was filled with a dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device. Using a bent-tip cystotome, a 2-mm curved incision was made in the center of the anterior capsule, which released subcortical fluid and was drained through compression of the posterior lip of the main incision using a spatula. Then, fine gentle milking in all quadrants around the puncture on the anterior lens capsule from the periphery toward the site of puncture using the blunt-edged spatula further assists drainage of subcortical fluid and breaks fine septa inside the lens to remove fluid from intralenticular fluid pocket collections.
Results: The study included 15 (45.5%) men and 18 (54.5%) women with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of age of 63.2 ± 5.33 and 64.4 ± 6.21 years, respectively. The modified capsulorhexis technique was performed for 33 intumescent cataracts. Capsulorhexis was completed in all cases; capsulorhexis was easy in 31 (94%) eyes and difficult in 2 (6%) eyes. In the two difficult cases, radial extension occurred in one eye, and it was retrieved using the Little technique; the other case with radial tear was completed successfully using a retinal micro scissor from the other edge of the capsulorhexis until reaching an oval, continuous capsulorhexis.
Conclusions: This modified capsulorhexis technique with compression on the posterior lip of the main incision and capsule milking allowed for a safe, continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis. Further comparative studies are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

Background: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is an advanced imaging modality that provides high resolution images at the level of different retinal layers. This study aime to evaluate choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) quantitatively and qualitatively, according to their classification, morphological features, and flow areas, using OCTA.
Methods: In this descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional study, CNVMs were divided into 2 groups according to their classification as type 1 or type 2 neovascularization. Mixed CNVMs were excluded from the study. The size (mm2) and the flow area (mm2) of the CNVMs were calculated via OCTA and the presence of the perivascular halo and loop anastomoses were analyzed. The morphological appearance of the CNVMs were classified as: medusa, sea-fan, lacy-wheel, glomerular, dead tree, and mature vascular networks.
Results: Of the 85 eyes assessed for eligibility, 45 eyes of 34 individuals with CNVM were enrolled in this retrospective study. Twenty-eight eyes had type 1 and 17 eyes had type 2 CNVMs. The mean size and flow area were greater in type 1 than in type 2 CNVMs (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 6.69 ± 4.54 and 3.61 ± 3.56 mm2 versus 3.04 ± 1.98 and 1.77 ± 1.62 mm2; P = 0.044 and 0.046, respectively). Among the 22 eyes with type 1 CNVMs and the 9 eyes with type 2 CNVMs, 31 eyes had exudative membranes. Among the eyes with exudative CNVMs, 22 eyes had a perivascular halo and 22 eyes had loop anastomoses; this was significantly more than in the non-exudative eyes (P = 0.042 and 0.041, respectively). The lacy-wheel (38.7%) and dead tree (71.4%) patterns were the most frequent morphological appearance of the CNVMs in the exudative and non-exudative membranes, respectively.
Conclusions: OCTA provides objective documantation about CNVMs. A perivascular dark halo around CNVMs could be a criterion to define exudative membranes activity.

Endothelial cell loss rate after penetrating keratoplasty: Optical versus therapeutic grafts

Abdelrhman Shams, Ayman Abdelmoneim Gaafar, Rania Serag Elkitkat, Mohamed Omar Yousif

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 10 No. 2 (2021), 5 August 2021 , Page 74-79

Background: This study aimed to compare the rate of endothelial cell loss (ECL) after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) for optical versus therapeutic grafts at 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperatively. Furthermore, the study aimed to investigate postoperative graft viability and the rate of graft rejection during the first year of follow-up for both indications.
Methods: This was a prospective, observational, comparative study that included patients who sought medical advice at the cornea outpatient clinic of Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. The study recruited 60 patients: group 1 included 30 transplanted corneas of 30 patients who underwent optical PKP for various indications, while group 2 included 30 transplanted corneas of 30 patients who underwent therapeutic PKP for unhealed, resistant infectious keratitis. Specular microscopy was performed for all patients at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up visits using Nidek CEM-530 specular microscopy. Postoperative clinical examinations were performed at the same follow-up visits to detect graft rejection.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups concerning the postoperative timing of graft clarity or the rate of ECL at 3- and 6-months postoperatively; however, the rate of ECL was significantly greater in group 2 than in group 1 at 12-months postoperatively (P = 0.03), although the difference was small from a clinical point of view. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the graft rejection rate.
Conclusions: Therapeutic PKP results were comparable to optical PKP with respect to graft viability, the rate of ECL, and the rate of graft rejection 1 year after grafting.

Scedosporium apiospermum contact lens-related keratitis: A rare case report and a literature review

Flavio Cassano, Nicola Cardascia, Maria Gabriella La Tegola , Francesco Boscia, Giovanni Alessio

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 10 No. 2 (2021), 5 August 2021 , Page 80-85

Background: Scedosporium apiospermum (SA) is commonly present in temperate climates. It can induce cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue infections as well as disseminated infections in immunocompromised or immunocompetent hosts. The eye is rarely involved. Keratomycosis is usually caused by plant-related injuries. Here, we describe a patient with a severe and sight-threatening corneal abscess caused by SA, which was associated with contact lens wear and was successfully treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapies.
Case Presentation: An otherwise healthy 22-year-old woman, with history of contact lens wearing, was referred to the Ophthalmic Department of Bari University, Bari, Italy for evaluation of a corneal abscess and hypopyon in her left eye. Intensive topical and systemic antibiotic therapy was initiated after obtaining conjunctival swabs. Within 2 days, her ophthalmic condition had worsened, and her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) dropped to counting fingers. She underwent penetrating keratoplasty, after which her ophthalmic condition improved. Microbiological culture, obtained from the explanted cornea, revealed SA infection. This was addressed with specific topical and systemic therapy using voriconazole. Two weeks later, the condition of her left eye was stable, with mild corneal edema and no sign of acute graft rejection. Her BCVA improved to 20/25, and all medications were discontinued, except for the steroid eye drop. The patient was scheduled for a 1-month follow-up.
Conclusions: Prompt identification of the etiological agent is mandatory to perform appropriate therapy in cases of keratomycosis. Surgery to remove the infected cornea is helpful in patients with deteriorating condition, in whom the initial medical therapy has failed. Topical and systemic antimycotic therapy, based on microbiological culture, is recommended as an adjunctive therapy for the surgical management of severe corneal mycotic abscesses.

Cataract prevalence following a nationwide policy to shorten wait time for cataract surgery

Ge Yang, Sherif El-Defrawy, Graham E Trope , Yvonne M Buys , Sophia Y Liu, Ya-Ping Jin

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 10 No. 2 (2021), 5 August 2021 , Page 86-94

Background: Cataract is an age-related eye disease. Visual impairment from cataract can be restored by cataract surgery. In 2004 the Canadian federal government invested in a multibillion dollar wait time strategy to shorten the wait time for cataract surgery, a government-insured health service in all Canadian jurisdictions. We assessed if this nationwide policy reduced the number of Canadians waiting for cataract surgery as more individuals with cataract were free of cataract following the rapidly conducted surgery.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study we analyzed data from randomly selected individuals aged greater than or equal to 45 years responding to the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) in 2000/2001, 2003, 2005, and the CCHS Healthy Aging in 2008/2009. Information on cataract was obtained from self-reported questionnaire. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of cataract was calculated for comparisons.
Results: Cataract was reported by 0.93 million Canadians in 2000/2001, 0.99 million in 2003, 1.10 million in 2005, and 1.34 million in 2008/2009. This corresponds to an age- and sex-standardized prevalence of 8.9% in 2000/2001, 9.0% in 2003, 9.5% in 2005, and 10.2% (P <0.05) in 2008/2009. The increase in age- and sex-standardized prevalence was greater in individuals without secondary school graduation than those with secondary school graduation or higher (4.3% versus 1.3%, P < 0.05) and was seen in all Canadian provinces. The largest increase was documented in a province (Saskatchewan, from 9.8% in 2000/2001 to 12.6% in 2008/2009, P < 0.05) with the longest median wait times for cataract surgery (118 days in 2008) and the lowest number of ophthalmologists per 100,000 population (1.96 versus 3.35 national average).
Conclusions: The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of cataract increased 4-5 years after the multibillion-dollar wait time strategy was launched in 2004. A lower threshold to diagnose cataract may be one potential reason for this finding. Further research is needed to understand the true reasons for the increase.