Combination of Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Peripheral Photocoagulation: An Alternative Treatment in Eales Disease

CP Juarez, AL Gramajo, JD Luna

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2013), 1 June 2013 , Page 30-33

To report the efficacy of combination therapy (bevacizumab and photocoagulation) in a case of Eales Disease this study has been performed. Bevacizumab (Avastin, 1.25 mg/0.05 ml) was injected intravitreously for the treatment of iris and retinal neovascularization in a 56-year old Hispanic female with photocoagulation treatment to control the recurrence of vitreous haemorrhage.

Our results revealed that stabilization of the disease and improvement in visual acuity were achieved without any signs of recurrence. Intravitreal bevacizumab in combination with photocoagulation treatment of ischemic retinal areas may be a good alternative for patients with recurrent vitreous haemorrhage due to Eales disease.

Intracorneal Rings (INTACS SK) Might be Beneficial in Keratoconus; A Prospective Nonrandomized Study

Tarek A. Ibrahim, Osama Elmor

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2013), 1 June 2013 , Page 34-40

In order to determine the effect of intracorneal rings (Intacs SK), when implanted in keratoconic patients, on corneal curvature, Uncorrected Visual Acuity (UCVA), Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) and on the progression of the cone through three years follow-up period. In this prospective nonrandomized study 114 eyes of 71 keratoconic patients (38 females and 33 males) were implanted with Intacs SK. Incisions were always made in the steep meridian. UCVA, BCVA, Corneal Topography (TMS) were measured pre and postoperatively and at intervals of 1, 3, 6 & 12 months then yearly for 3 consecutive years.

Preoperative mean k-reading was 52.53 and 48.18, 49.56, 49.17, 48.51, 48.15 & 48.01 at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 & 36 months postoperatively (P‹0.01). In terms of UCVA, 15.64% of patients gained more than 3 lines and 69.73% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 85.37% of patients gaining lines compared to their preoperative UCVA (P‹0.01) while 14.63% of cases did not gain any lines at 1 month postoperative. At three months postoperatively, 12.64% gained more than 3 lines, 71.15% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 83.79% while 16.21% did not gain any lines. Three years postoperative 11.82% of cases gained more than 3 lines, 73.23% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 85.05% while 14.95% did not gain any lines (P‹0.01). With regard to BCVA, 19.73% gained more than 3 lines, 68.26% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 87.99% of cases gaining lines compared to their preoperative BCVA (P‹0.01) while 12.01% did not gained any lines at 1 month postoperative. At three months postoperatively, 14.96% gained more than 3 lines, 70.19% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 85.15% while 14.85% did not gain any lines. Three years postoperative, 12.17% gained more than 3 lines, 71.78% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 83.95% (P‹0.01) while 16.05% did not gain any lines. No eyes lost any lines as it pertained to UCVA & BCVA. Despite the fluctuation of k-readings, UCVA and BCVA in the first 3 months, which may represent the time needed to stabilize the cone, UCVA and BCVA were improved and maintained throughout the study. Patient selection remains the key point for the success of intacs in keratoconic patients.

Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Management: the Role of Neuroprotective Agents

Marianne L. Shahsuvaryan

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2013), 1 June 2013 , Page 41-46

Glaucoma is a major cause of worldwide irreversible blindness. The central role of raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is being questioned as many patients continue to demonstrate a clinically downhill course despite initial control of IOP. The latest concept of recognizing glaucoma as a multifactorial, progressive, neurodegenerative disease of retinal ganglion cells (RGCSs) associated with characteristic axon degeneration in the optic nerve emphasizes that several pressure-independent mechanisms are responsible for the development and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Neuroprotection as a pharmacological strategy to mitigate retinal ganglion cell death has been a popular current approach. The aim of this review is to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of calcium channel blockers in glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

Visual Improvement Following Ozonetherapy in Dry Age Related Macular Degeneration; a Review

Emma Borrelli, Velio Bocci

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2013), 1 June 2013 , Page 47-51

The dry form of ARMD is becoming a serious problem because of the rise in the number of old individuals. No effective therapy is available in dry ARMD except for the illusory oral administration of antioxidant vitamins. Despite scepticism in the medical community, the therapeutic effect of ozonetherapy had been evaluated since 1996. This evaluation has been based on specific biochemical, molecular and pharmacological reactions. Nevertheless a number of visual scientists continue to ignore ozonetherapy conservatively and prescribe only antioxidant vitamins. Two small clinical studies involving 217 patients have been performed at the University of Siena showing that ozonetherapy can stop the progression of the disease while improving the visual acuity and the well-being of the patient. Moreover, it seems that ozonetherapy is a safe procedure and tends to have an excellent compliance.

Stem Cell Therapy: a Novel Approach for Vision Restoration in Retinitis Pigmentosa

Harvey Uy, Pik Sha Chan, Franz Marie Cruz

Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 2 (2013), 1 June 2013 , Page 52-55

Unfortunately, at present, degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa remains untreatable. Patients with these conditions suffer progressive visual decline resulting from continuing loss of photoreceptor cells and outer nuclear layers. However, stem cell therapy is a promising approach to restore visual function in eyes with degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. Animal studies have established that pluripotent stem cells when placed in the mouse retinitis pigmentosa models have the potential not only to survive, but also to differentiate, organize into and function as photoreceptor cells. Furthermore, there is early evidence that these transplanted cells provide improved visual function. These groundbreaking studies provide proof of concept that stem cell therapy is a viable method of visual rehabilitation among eyes with retinitis pigmentosa. Further studies are required to optimize these techniques in human application. This review focuses on stem cell therapy as a new approach for vision restitution in retinitis pigmentosa.