Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry,
Vol. 3 No. 3 (2022),
30 December 2022
Background: Uveitis is associated with several systemic disorders. It may be the initial presentation or manifestation of a systemic disease. It is the most common ocular complication and is sometimes the earliest manifestation of spondyloarthropathies. This study aimed to review the current literature on spondyloarthropathies and associated uveitis.
Methods: A narrative review was performed using various combinations of the keywords spondyloarthropathies, seronegative spondylarthritis-related uveitis, and human leukocyte antigen-associated uveitis using PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2022. We describe the disease mechanisms, genetics, and classification of spondyloarthropathies, the clinical patterns of their related ocular diseases, and the current modalities for the management of their ocular or systemic manifestations.
Results: Seronegative spondyloarthropathies are a group of rheumatic disorders including ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease-related spondyloarthropathy, juvenile-onset spondyloarthritis, and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. These are characterized by enthesitis in the absence of serum rheumatoid factor and have a strong association with human leukocyte antigen B27. The clinical courses and features of spondyloarthropathies are remarkably diverse. Ocular inflammation is common in spondyloarthropathies, often precedes the onset or diagnosis of systemic disease, and responds well to topical therapy. Timely diagnosis of systemic diseases may improve quality of life and help avoid ocular and skeletal complications. Recurrence of ocular inflammation is frequent; on occasion, it may be associated with etanercept administration.
Conclusions: Eye care professionals should be able to recognize spondyloarthropathies, manage ocular disease, and collaborate with related specialties for modification of systemic treatment if associated with ocular complications. Timely referral and early management could attenuate or prevent ocular or systemic morbidities associated with spondyloarthropathies.