Role of Ophthalmic Nurses in Prevention of Ophthalmic Diseases

Mohammad Bagher Hadavand, Fatemeh Heidary, Roghayeh Heidary, Reza Gharebaghi

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2013), 1 December 2013 , Page 92-95

There are numerous ocular problems that could be diagnosed and detected by well-trained ophthalmic nurses. Ophthalmic nurses may significantly contribute in ophthalmology and visual sciences. These trained nurses may assist in decrease the rate of cancelled surgical operations at the date of operation that had been due to lack of attention to health problems in pre-operative assessments. Furthermore, they could perform some medical evaluation of patients that are candidates for surgery, preoperatively. Additionally, their services would be beneficial to accelerate discharging patients, which would result in less drain on financial resources for medical centres. Ophthalmic nurses are also critical elements in health-care systems because they can help to deliver up to date ophthalmic knowledge and contribute to general physicians, academically. Additionally, they may be able to assist patients who suffer from blindness or loss of vision, to find national organizations that provide services and education. They are able to be a great assistance in referring patients that need subspecialty services and subsequently, contribute to saving health-care expenditures by let the patients to receive proper management. These nurses could play a significant role in the process of teaching people, providing proper diagnoses, administration, and management of ocular problems.

Topical Nepafenac in Treatment of Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

Zeynep Alkin, Ozen Ayranci Osmanbasoglu, Abdullah Ozkaya, Gonul Karatas, Ahmet Taylan Yazici, Ahmet Demirok

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2013), 1 December 2013 , Page 96-101

This study had been performed to investigate the anatomic and functional outcomes of nepafenac 0.1% therapy in acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The medical records of 30 patients with acute CSC were reviewed for a total of 31 eye charts. Seventeen eye records of 16 patients who were treated with topical nepafenac 0.1% three times daily for four weeks and continued until complete resolution of subretinal fluid were appraised. Fourteen patients with acute CSC (a total of 14 eye records) who did not receive treatment served as the control group also had been recorded. The proportion of eyes with complete resolution of subretinal fluid, serial changes in the mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the mean central foveal thickness (CFT) at 6 months of therapy were the outcomes measured. Mean age was 42.6±8.2 years in the treatment group and 41.1±7.1 years in the control group (p=0.85). At 6 months, 14 eyes (82.3%) in the treatment group and 6 eyes (42.8%) in the control group revealed a complete resolution in the subretinal fluid (p=0.02). In the treatment group, mean BCVA (LogMAR) significantly improved from 0.19±0.17 at baseline to 0.09±0.12 at 6 months (p=0.01). In the control group, mean BCVA (LogMAR) was 0.13±0.14 at baseline and decreased to 0.1±0.11 at 6 months (p=0.28). In the treatment group, mean CFT was 349±115 µm at baseline and significantly improved to 221±95 µm at 6 months (p<0.01). In the control group, mean CFT declined from 391±138 µm at baseline to 301±125 µm at 6 months (p=0.06). No treatment-related ocular or systemic side effects were observed. In conclusion, nepafenac 0.1% has the potential to treatment acute CSC. Further trials are warranted to study its safety and efficacy for this disease.

Collagen Matrix Implantation Following Pterygium Excision: Outcomes of a Preliminary Tested Hypothesis

Muhammad Arish, Abdul-Nasser Nadjafi, Mojdeh Mojdeh Jahangard

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2013), 1 December 2013 , Page 102-104

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of collagen matrix implant on pterygium recurrence compared with a control group following pterygium removal surgery. Following informed consent, twenty eyes of 20 patients (females = 13, males = 7, aged 23–67 years) were randomly allocated into two equal groups. Pterygia of all patients were excised using the bare sclera technique; however, for patients in the intervention group a 1×2 mm collagen matrix graft (iGen™) was implanted subconjunctivally. Patients were followed up for recurrence and complications within six months. Results revealed that only two eyes in the control group and one eye in the intervention group developed recurrence (p=0.50); no dellen formation was observed. In conclusion, the use of biodegradable collagen matrix implants (iGen™) following pterygium excision seems to be associated with a lower risk of recurrence; however, the statistical difference between groups was not significant. Further studies with adequate sample size are recommended.

The Protective Effect of Phaseolus Vulgaris on Cataract in Type 2 Diabetes: A Profitable Hypothesis

Benjamin Longo-Mbenza, Moise Mvitu Muaka

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2013), 1 December 2013 , Page 105-108

The pathophysiology of major ocular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Bantu is not well understood. Several studies have been conducted to determine the basic reasons of visual deficiencies (VD) (blindness, visual impairment, and ocular eye diseases) in T2DM among Bantu from Central Africa. The quality of dietary intake was assessed in patients along with other ophthalmological assessments for diabetic retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and macular edema. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and leafy vegetables are rich in antioxidants. The consumption of at least 3 ladles per meal, 3 times or more per week, has been identified as a potential protective factor against cataract. The anti-radical activity of beans is well known in the literature. Beans are considered to have a comparatively higher antioxidant activity than in many other vegetables. Our findings from previous epidemiologic studies establish that the antioxidant activity of P. vulgaris helps control blood glucose. We, therefore, hypothesize that the dietary supplements of bean can be a low-cost prevention approach to reduce cataract and much other visual comorbidity associated with T2DM. However, further epidemiological studies combined with molecular research need to be conducted to prove this hypothesis.

Acetazolamide and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy; a Preliminary Tested Hypothesis in a TertiaryReferral Center

Gholamreza Khataminia, Farshad Ostadian, Mohammad Noroozzadeh, Mahmoud Latifi, Masoud Khataminia

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2013), 1 December 2013 , Page 109-112

This study evaluated the effect of acetazolamide on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Patients with a VISA classification index equal to or more than four were enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, treatment was initiated using prednisolone. Patients in the case group received acetazolamide tablets 250 mg daily in addition to prednisolone. Three months later, the VISA inflammatory score of patients in both groups were determined. Subsequent to intervention with acetazolamide, the VISA inflammatory score of patients in the case group were reduced as follows; orbital pain (57.1% versus 41.7%, P=0.736), eyelid edema (42.8% versus 27.1%, P=0.67), chemosis (53.3% versus 33%, P=0.31), injection of the eyelids (60% versus 41.6%, P=0.342), and conjunctival injection (50% versus 46.13%, P=0.73). However, these reductions were not statistically significant when compared with those observed in the control group (P=0.246). In conclusion, the effect of acetazolamide on all the parameters of the VISA inflammatory score was examined independently. All patients in the case group revealed a reduction in VISA inflammatory score following intervention. However, these reductions were not statistically significant. Further studies with large sample sizes are required.

Novel Intraocular Therapy in Non-infectious Uveitis of the Posterior Segment of the Eye

Michael Mikhail, Ahmed Sallam

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2013), 1 December 2013 , Page 113-120

This article reviews the new clinically relevant data regarding the intraocular treatment of non-infectious uveitis. Triamcinolone acetonide is the most commonly used intravitreal corticosteroid for treatment of uveitis and uveitic macular oedema. The drug is available at low cost but it is associated with a high risk of raised intraocular pressure (IOP) and cataract and is not licensed for intraocular use. Dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) appears to have a better safety profile, and a slightly long-lasting effect than triamcinolone acetonide. Fluocinolone acetonide implant (Retisert®) implant allows the release of corticosteroids at a constant rate over a 3-year period, but it requires surgical placement and its use is associated with a very high risk of cataracts and raised intraocular pressure. Iluvien® is another fluocinolone acetonide implant that could represent a more convenient treatment option for such cases in the future as it can be inserted into the vitreous cavity through 25-gauge injector system in an outpatient setting. To circumvent the risks associated with corticosteroids use, non-corticosteroids related therapeutics including intravitreal methotrexate; anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments and intravitreal sirolimus have been recently developed.