Initial Results From a New Model of Posterior Chamber Implantable Phakic Contact Lens: IPCL V2.0.

German Roberto BIANCHI

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 57-63

The aim of this study was to evaluate the corneal safety, intraocular pressure (IOP), vault and refractive efficiency of the new implantable phakic contact lens, IPCL V2.0 (Care Group, India). A prospective case series study was performed to evaluate 100 consecutive surgeries with IPCL V2.0 (spherical and toric models). Refractive results, corneal endothelial cell density (CD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Intraocular pressure was measured at baseline, 1 day and 6 months, and vault, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Surgical complications and cataract development were also evaluated. The mean corneal endothelial CD decreased by 2.9% with a statistically significance difference (p: 0.03). The mean CCT decreased by 0.87% at 6 months postoperative, without a statistical significance difference (p: 0.35). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of IOP at baseline was 13.72 ±1.4 mm Hg, at 1 day postoperative was 13.88 ±1.2 mm Hg, and at 6 months was 13.62 ±1.3 mm Hg. These differences were not statistically significant (p: 0.37). The difference in vault between 3 and 6 months after surgery was not statistically significant (p: 0.97). The coefficient of correlation between the attempted versus achieved spherical equivalent (SE) change was R2: 0.958. Postoperative SE was between -0.50 D to 0.50 D in 52% of cases. The remaining of the eyes had SE values ranging from -1.5 D to +1.35 D. No intra or postoperative complications occurred and specifically cataract was not developed. The corneal endothelial CD, CCT, vault and IOP remained stable 6 months after surgery. Refraction was improved and the IPCL V 2.0 was implanted safely.

A Case of Artificial Snow Foam induced Corneal Endotheliitis Followed up by Scheimpflug Densitometry

Amr MOUNIR, Omar Fawzy ZIDAN, Islam AWNY, Engy Mohamed MOSTAFA

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 64-68

The aim was to present a rare case of artificial snow foam induced corneal endotheliitis followed up by Scheimpflug Densitometry. A 15-year-old male complained of redness, tearing and reduced vision in the left eye after artificial snow foam entered his left eye 4 days before the presentation. Slit lamp examination of the same eye showed ciliary injection with corneal edema with no epithelial defect and endothelial lesion measuring 3 × 4 millimeters (mm) with large keratic precipitates (KP). Examining the left eye by the Scheimpflug densitometry of the Sirius device (CSO, Florence, Italy) showed plaque on the back of the cornea. Aqueous tab Polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) results for the affected eye had negative results for viral infection. Improvement of ocular symptoms occurred after treatment with topical steroid therapy. Scheimpflug densitometry showed disappearance of the saw-tooth protrusions on the back of the cornea with decreased reflectivity. Corneal endotheliitis can be triggered by chemical ocular trauma. The Scheimpflug densitometry examination may be a useful noninvasive method for reaching a clinical diagnosis of corneal endotheliitis and monitoring treatment effectiveness.

Early Miscarriage Occurring Six Days After Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection


Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 69-72

The aim of this case report was to describe a miscarriage which occurred 6 days after an intravitreal Ranibizumab (IVR) injection. A 24-year-old female patient with type 1 diabetes diagnosed with diabetic macular edema in her left eye planned for 3 injections of IVR at one-month intervals. She had been receiving insulin injections 3 times a day and her Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) was in the approximate range of 6–7%. An ophthalmologic examination revealed that the patient’s Snellen corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 10/10 in her right eye and 3/10 in her left eye. The patient was unaware of her pregnancy at the time of initial injection. Two days after the first injection, she found out that she was 5 weeks pregnant. This was the first pregnancy for the patient and there were no risk factors for miscarriage rather than diabetes. Six days after the injection, she was admitted to the hospital due to severe abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Miscarriage was diagnosed and she underwent curettage procedure. We concluded that pregnancy tests should be administered prior to intravitreal injection for female patients of reproductive age, and patient testimony should not be the sole reason to dismiss the possibility of pregnancy. 

Outcomes of Trabeculectomy With and Without Mitomycin C in Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma Compared With Mitomycin C in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

Ana Sofia LOPES, Fernando Trancoso VAZ, Susana HENRIQUES, Maria LISBOA, Cristina VENDRELL, Isabel PRIETO

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 73-80

The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) in patients with Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma (PXG) and compare the results with the outcomes of trabeculectomy without MMC in PXG and with MMC in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG). Ninety eyes (76 patients) submitted to trabeculectomy were included in a one-year retrospective study. Fifty-eight eyes with PXG were divided into group 1 (28 eyes) and group 2 (30 eyes), with and without MMC application respectively. Then, the group 1 results were compared with 32 eyes with POAG that performed trabeculectomy with MMC (group 3). Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of IOP lowering medications, rate of bleb failure (encapsulation, flattening and/or vascularization) and the number of eyes submitted to surgical procedures after trabeculectomy (needling, 5-fluorouracil – 5FU or 2nd trabeculectomy). Results revealed that compared to trabeculectomy with MMC in POAG and trabeculectomy with MMC in PXG, trabeculectomy without MMC in PXG leads to higher IOP (preoperative mean ± standard deviation [SD] was 28.6 ± 5.4 mmHg in group 1, 32.2 ± 8.2 mmHg in group 2 and 26.1 ± 6.5 mmHg in group 3; and after one year was 13.9 ± 3.9 mmHg in group 1, 16.1 ± 5.9 mmHg in group 2 and 12.5 ± 4.0 mmHg in group 3); higher number of IOP lowering medications (preoperative mean was 3.1 ± 0.60 in group 1, 2.8 ± 0.81 in group 2 and 3.4 ± 0.76 in group 3; and after one year was 1.1 ± 1.1 in group 1, 1.1 ± 1.0 in group 2 and 0.33 ± 0.89 in group 3); higher prevalence of bleb failure (47% in group 1, 53% in group 2, and 18% in group 3); and increased participation in surgical procedures following trabeculectomy (47% in group 1, 57% in group 2, and 6% in group 3). We concluded that trabeculectomy without MMC in PXG had the worst surgical outcome. Thus, PXG appears to be a potential risk factor for filtration bleb failure. Therefore, it could be considered in surgical protocols of MMC application.

A Pilot Study of the Short Term Effectiveness and Safety of Amniotic Fluid in Severe Dry Eye Disease

Ming CHEN, Chao Kai CHANG, Szu Yuan LIN, Mindy CHEN

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 81-84

The aim of this study was to evaluate if amniotic fluid (AF) mixed with artificial tears or soaked with a soft contact lens (SCL) as a treatment for severe dry eye disease (DED) would improve its signs or symptoms. In this retrospective pilot study 22 consecutive eyes of 11 patients with level 3 DED classified by DEWS 1 (Dry Eye WorkShop 1 2007), were included in the study between June 1 and September 30 in 2017. The study was conducted before DEWS II (Dry Eye WorkShop II 2017), which was published in October 2017. Therefore, DEWS II was not adopted for this study. Soft Contact Lens Acuvue Oasys of Plano with 8.8 base curve and 14 mm diameters by Johnson and Johnson were used to soak in FloGraft, which is an AF, for 30 minutes before placing in 12 eyes in Group 1. The contact lenses were placed in the left eye for 1 week. In Group 2, 10 eyes used 6 mL of artificial tears mixed with 0.25 mL of AF, which were applied to the eye four times a day for 1 week. No other eye medications were used. The eyes that were included had diffuse punctate staining and fast tear breaking times of <5 seconds with severe ocular symptoms (DEWS 1 level 3-4). Photos of fluorescein stain corneas before the treatment and 1 week after the treatment were used to compare the distribution of punctate staining as the objective outcomes for signs. Several questions adopted from the Ocular Surface disease Index (OSDI) about subjective symptoms before and after the treatment were asked, and documented on the chart. Improvement either in symptoms or signs or both of DED after 1 week at follow-up examination was recorded. Group 1, with SCL 46% had improvement after 1 week and Group 2, with artificial tears 50% had improvement after 1 week. Improvement means either symptom relief or comparatively decreased distribution of punctate staining on the cornea or both. No cases had inflammation, infection, irritation or blurred vision. We concluded that FloGraft as an AF can safely improve the symptoms or the signs of severe DED either as a mix with artificial tears or soaked with SCL by about 50% in this case series without evidence of irritation, inflammation or blurred vision in the short term.

Comparison of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Map Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy, Subclinical and Early Keratoconus Subjects


Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 85-91

The aim of this study was to compare epithelial thickness map obtained by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) of eyes with myopic astigmatism but without keratoconus, subclinical and early keratoconus. Sixty-three eyes divided into three groups; myopic astigmatism without keratoconus, subclinical and early keratoconus. Corneal epithelial thickness map was obtained by SD-OCT for all patients and compared between the 3 groups. Mean epithelial thickness in the area of minimum corneal epithelial thickness, in the one eighth part of the inferior (I) and in the one eighth part of the temporal (T) were 56.64±2.82 µm, 59.00±3.24 µm and 60.40±4.93 µm respectively in subclinical group. Three parameters on epithelial maps obtained by SD-OCT was significantly different in the 2 groups: I and T corneal epithelial thickness map was thicker in subclinical keratoconus (P<0.02 and P<0.02 respectively). Epithelial map uniformity indices were different between the groups, as Superior-I, Superonasal-Inferotemporal were lower (P<0.00 and P< 0.01 respectively) but T-nasal was higher in the subclinical group (P<0.02). The area with minimum epithelial thickness had a significantly lower amount in early keratoconus group compared to the other two groups (P<0.00). In conclusion, corneal epithelial thickness map provided early detection of keratoconus in the subclinical stage with compensatory epithelial thickening of inferior and temporal one eighth compared to total corneal thickness and changes in epithelial map uniformity indices cause early detection of subclinical keratoconus from normal cornea.

Management of Pseudophakic Malignant Glaucoma in Sunset Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review

Ioannis-Nikolaos CHALKIAS, Efthymios CHALKIAS, Anastasios HALKIAS

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 92-95

To present an interesting case of pseudophakic malignant glaucoma in sunset syndrome, which potentially points to a correlation between a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) subluxation and development of aqueous misdirection. Furthermore, we underlined the effectiveness of YAG-laser hyaloidotomy as a first line treatment for malignant glaucoma. This is a case report and literature review. A 76-year-old male with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) with a history of left monocular diplopia due to inferior dislocation of the PC IOL (sunset syndrome), presented with a sudden onset of pain in the left eye and decreased visual acuity with corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/60, seven years after an uneventful left phacoemulsification. The anterior chamber (AC) was shallow, the intraocular pressure (IOP) elevated and the PCIOL extruded in AC. Aqueous misdirection was diagnosed and treated with YAG laser hyaloidotomy. A gush of fluid emerged with simultaneous deepening of the AC and the IOP dropped immediately to 24 mmHg and later to 9 mmHg. A prophylactic YAG peripheral iridotomy was also performed. An IOL exchange surgery with anterior chamber IOL placement was performed a few days later resulting in a final CDVA of 20/30. We argue that postoperative subluxation of a PC IOL is likely to be an initiating event for aqueous misdirection.

Eyelid Cosmetic Enhancements and Their Associated Ocular Adverse Effects

Maliha MASUD, Majid MOSHIRFAR, Tirth J. SHAH, Aaron T. GOMEZ, Michele R. AVILA, Yasmyne C. RONQUILLO

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 96-103

Numerous cosmetic enhancements and augmentations to the natural appearance of the periorbital area are readily available today. Due to the increasing popularity of these cosmetic procedures, it is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of their potential risks, complications and adverse effects. The aim of this literature review was to introduce some of the most common ocular cosmetic enhancements and provide a comprehensive overview of their associated adverse effects reported in various medical journals. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were used to identify articles related to the following ocular cosmetic procedures; eyelash extensions, permanent eyelid tattooing, and eyelash dyeing. The most common complication associated with eyelash extensions was allergic blepharitis (79%). Allergic granulomatous reactions were the predominant complication in patients who underwent eyelid tattooing (56%). Besides, 60% of subjects who underwent eyelash dyeing experienced allergic contact dermatitis as the most common adverse effect. Although millions of these procedures are performed annually without any adverse effects, reports of complications continue to increase in the literature. Knowledge of the possible adverse effects associated with these enhancements is important for eye care providers and licensed estheticians to be aware of given both the direct and indirect effects they may have on ocular health and visual outcomes.

Office-based Air-Fluid Exchange for Diabetic Post-Operative Vitreous Cavity Hemorrhage

Alice W. BEHRENS, Sami H. UWAYDAT, Joshua S. HARDIN, Ahmed B. SALLAM

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 104-109

Post-operative vitreous cavity hemorrhage (POVCH) is observed in 6-75% of eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). We describe our technique for office-based Air fluid exchange (AFX) in the treatment of POVCH. Sixteen eyes (15 patients) with PDR and POVCH undergoing office-based AFX between January 2006 and November 2016 were retrospectively identified. The pre- and post- procedure visual acuity (VA) and complications were compared between eyes with and without traction retinal detachment (TRD). Medicare charges for office-based AFX versus PPV were also analyzed. Mean age at the time of AFX was 55.31 (± 8.02) years. Nine eyes (56.25%) had TRD prior to PPV and 11 eyes (68.75%) were pseudophakic. The improvements in mean (± standard deviation [SD]) logMAR VA at the last postoperative visit (3 - 8 months) were 1.38 (± 0.99), 0.82 (± 0.91) and 2.09 (± 0.53) in all eyes, TRD eyes and non-TRD eyes, respectively. Complications included cataract progression, hypotony, and recurrence of TRD and ghost cell glaucoma. The total cost of outpatient AFX was $1,409.59 less than that of PPV. Office-based AFX is a cost-effective alternative treatment for non-clearing diabetic POVCH with an acceptable risk profile.

Corneal Posterior Curvature Changes After Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery with 2.75 mm Corneal Incision

Artur Jose SCHMITT, Ana Tereza Ramos MOREIRA, Faruk Abrão Kalil FILHO, Fernanda Piccoli SCHMITT

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 110-115

The aim of this study was to evaluate the corneal posterior curvature changes after phacoemulsification cataract surgery, with intraocular lens implantation, with a temporal limbal self-sealing 2.75 millimeters (mm) corneal incision, using a Placido-dual rotating Scheimpflug device. In this prospective intervention study, corneal posterior curvature changes were evaluated in fifty-six patients (56 eyes). All patients underwent corneal tomography using the Galilei G2 (Ziemer Ophthalmic System AG, Port, Switzerland) preoperatively (PRE) and with two weeks (RP15), one month (RP30), and three months (RP90) after phacoemulsification cataract surgery with a temporal limbal self-sealing 2.75 mm incision. Tomographic parameters analyzed in the posterior cornea were the steep curvature (K2), flat curvature (K1), mean curvature (average K), and posterior corneal astigmatism. We did not observe any statistically significant change in the K2, K1, average K, and posterior corneal astigmatism in any postoperative follow-up measurements (RP15, RP30, RP90), showing that the postoperative values tend to be the same as the preoperative ones when measured with the Galilei G2 tomography.  In conclusion, the 2.75 mm temporal limbal self-sealing corneal incision in phacoemulsification cataract surgery does not induce significant changes in the posterior corneal curvature parameters of K2, K1, average K, and astigmatism.

The Use of Topiramate for Weight Loss Causing Acute Glaucoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

Bruno Mauricio Rodrigues DE OLIVEIRA, Pedro Vanalle FERRARI, Bruno Torres HERRERIAS, Flávio Eduardo HIRAI, Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa GRACITELLI

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019), 15 June 2019 , Page 116-120

Topiramate is a sulfa-containing drug which is able to disrupt the ocular blood barrier. Recently it has gained more popularity, being used in many clinical conditions. Nowadays, the cases of glaucoma induced by topiramate have increased due to the use of this drug to induce weight loss. We here described a 29-year-old female presented with a one-day history of blurred vision in both eyes and headache. She was using a weight loss formula containing topiramate 100 milligrams. Ophthalmologic exam revealed an important myopic shift of -7.00 spherical diopters at presentation with intraocular pressure (IOP) of 32 mmHg and a shallow anterior chamber in both eyes. After discontinuous of topiramate and use of cycloplegic eyedrops, myopic shift improved and IOP controlled after two days. The anterior chamber was significantly deeper in both eyes after two weeks. It is theorized that topiramate can provoke a ciliochoroidal effusion and, therefore, can cause an anterior displacement of lens-iris diaphragm with a secondary angular closure. The treatment must include cycloplegic and discontinuation of the drug. Sulfa-containing drugs lead to an indirect mechanism of angle closure, frequently bilateral and, as mentioned above, with a different treatment approach. If unrecognized and untreated, it can provoke high morbidity with possibility of bilateral permanent visual loss.