Combined Endocyclophotocoagulation and Phacoemulsification in Patients with Glaucoma of African Descent

Corey W. Waldman, Manishi Desai, Effie Z Rahman, Babak Eliassi-Rad

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 257-265

The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of combined endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) and phacoemulsification regarding vision, refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), medication dependence, and complications in patients of African descent. A retrospective chart review was performed including all cases of ECP combined with phacoemulsification from October 2015 to March 2017. Exclusion criteria consisted of patients who were not of African descent and patients with <1 month follow-up. IOP was the primary outcome. Thirty-two eyes of 29 patients were included in the study. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) of IOP decreased from 17.30 ± 6.30 mmHg preoperatively to 15.88 ± 4.23 mmHg at the last postoperative visit (P = 0.301). In 2 of eight patients who did not demonstrate a difference in pre- and postoperative IOP changes, all IOP lowering medications were stopped. The mean ± SD of follow-up was 5.05 ± 4.08 months with a range of 1 to 18 months. The mean ± SD number of medications used for each patient for IOP control decreased from 2.59 ± 1.01 preoperatively to 1.97 ±1.38 (P = 0.045). Average visual acuity improved from 20/50 preoperatively to 20/25 (P = 0.002). Postoperative complication rate was low. ECP combined with phacoemulsification was effective to decrease IOP lowering medication dependence in patients of African descent. We found that combined ECP and phacoemulsification can lead to a significantly decreased dependence on IOP lowering drops, with some patients demonstrating complete independence from drops following surgery. Although there was not a significant decrease in IOP postoperatively when analyzed collectively, larger studies might to find such an association. Combined ECP and phacoemulsification has been shown to be a safe combination in patients with refractive glaucoma and may be considered if a patient desire less dependence on IOP lowering drops once other first-line methods have failed, or as a bridge between conservative and more definitive surgical treatment. Epub: October 1, 2019

Bacteriology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Childhood Acute Bacterial Conjunctivitis in Western Greece

Maria-Zoi Oikonomakou, Olga E. Makri, Eleni Panoutsou, Konstantinos Kagkelaris, Panagiotis Plotas, Dionysia Garatziotou, Constantinos D. Georgakopoulos, Maria I. Eliopoulou

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 266-271

Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is a common, highly contagious infection in children and is usually treated empirically with broad spectrum topical antibiotics. In the current study we investigated bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in childhood acute bacterial conjunctivitis in Western Greece. We conducted a retrospective analysis of presumed acute bacterial conjunctivitis cases in ''Karamandaneio'' Pediatric General Hospital of Patras, Western Greece, between February 1, 2013 and January 31, 2018. Specimens from the lower conjunctiva fornix were isolated from 191 cases and outcomes were analyzed to identify the pathogenic bacteria of acute bacterial conjunctivitis and their corresponding antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Patients were divided into 3 groups; Group A included neonates under 28 days of life, Group B children from 1 month to 2 years and Group C from 2 years to 14 years. Results revealed that Staphylococcus spp., Haemophilus spp. and Streptococcus spp. were the most prevalent pathogens. No significant differences in isolated pathogens were found between the age groups. Antibiotic resistance rates were higher against ampicillin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and sulfamethoxazole. Resistance rates to Ciprofloxacin were low while none of the evaluated isolates were resistant to vancomycin. We concluded that predominant pathogens of childhood acute bacterial conjunctivitis in Western Greece were Staphylococcus spp., Haemophilus spp. and Streptococcus spp. Continuous surveillance, focused in distinct geographic areas, is encouraged to prepare more precise protocols of empirical treatment. Epub: October 1, 2019.

Conjunctival Autograft With Fibrin Glue for Pterygium: A Long Term Recurrence Assessment

Pablo Luis Daponte, Andrea Cigna, Ovidio Lescano, Federico Sipowicz, Brenda Pena, Gabriel Abud, Gabriel Di-Virgilio, Adriana Chirinos, Gustavo Federico Bodino

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 272-277

Pterygium is an old challenge for ophthalmic surgeons. Its final resolution is surgical intervention. New surgical techniques have been introduced to improve the outcome, however, the possibility of recurrence always exists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pterygium recurrence rate with a long-term follow-up, after surgery was performed with conjunctival autograft and fibrin glue as a biological adhesive. A retrospective case-series study was performed, reviewing cases operated from May 2008 to May 2018 with at least 1 year of follow-up in a private clinic in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The evaluation time-points were at 1 day, 20 days, 6 months, 1 year after surgery and then every year. All the procedures were performed by the same surgeon in single center. Topical Mitomycin C (MMC), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), cauterization and/or amniotic membrane were not used in any case. From a total of 159 operated eyes (82/77 women/men), pterygium was recurred in 7 eyes (4.4%); all of them detected at the second follow-up time-point (at day 20). Intraoperative complications did not occur, but at the postoperative stage, one case presented a conjunctival granuloma, which was surgically resolved. In conclusion, a low pterygium recurrence rate was observed after conjunctival autograft with fibrin glue. In our study, recurrence was found at the postoperative first month and did not recur until the end of follow-up for 10 years. Epub: October 1, 2019.

Neutrophil to Lymphocyte and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratios in Normal Tension Glaucoma

Kursat Atalay, Havva Erdogan Kaldirim, Ahmet Kirgiz, Senay Asik Nacaroglu

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 278-282

Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is a subtype of glaucoma that occurs at relatively low intraocular pressure levels and results in progressive optic neuropathy. Previous studies display some abnormal immune activity against the optic nerve. Neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratios (PLR) are novel markers for inflammation. Here we evaluated the NLR, PLR, Creactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels in NTG. NLR and PLR were resulted by dividing neutrophil and platelet counts to lymphocyte count respectively. Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, rheumatologic disease, anemia, cancer, cigarette smoking, myocardial infarction and a febrile illness within one month of sampling were excluded from the investigation. In total, the blood samples of 28 NTG and 27control patients were analyzed for the study. There were 11 female (40.7%) and 16 male patients (59.3%) in the control group. The NTG group contained 15 (53.6%) female and 13 (46.4%) male patients. All of the NLR, PLR, ESR and CRP, values of NTG patients were not statistically different from the control group (P = 0.07, P = 0.64 and P = 0.44 respectively). Although previous studies have shown significant differences in NLR and PLR levels in other types of glaucoma, we did not find any significant difference in NTG subjects. Our early report may give insight into the differential diagnosis of NTG. Epub: October 1, 2019.

Multimodal Imaging of Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

Marwa Mahmoud Abdellah

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 283-290

The aim of this study was to describe fluorescein angiography (FA), ocular coherence tomography (OCT) and ocular coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the diagnosis of acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). This is an observational case series study performed at Sohag Ophthalmic Investigation Center. Fifteen patients presented by a sudden marked unilateral diminution of vision were included. Corrected Distance Visual acuity (CDVA), color fundus photos, FA, OCT and OCTA, imaging obtained in the first week of presentation and imaging of the other normal eye as a control were assessed. Central macular thickness (CMT), parafoveal inner retinal layers thickness and parafoveal outer retinal thickness in diseased and contralateral normal eyes were compared. Fifteen patients (mean age 52.67 years, 11-74 years old) including 66.7% male entered the study. CDVA ranged from no perception of light to 0.05 (20/400). Fundus examination showed a cherry red spot in 10 cases (66.7 %) and retinal whitening in 9 cases (60%), arteriolar narrowing in 7 (46.67%), optic disc edema in 4 (26.67%), optic disc pallor in 5 (33.3%) and cattle trucking in 5 (33.3%). Fluorescein angiography showed delayed arteriovenous transit time > 23 seconds in 8 cases (53.33 %) and normal FA in 4 cases (26.67 %). OCT revealed increased hyperreflective of the inner retinal layers in comparison to hyporeflective inner retinal layers in all cases (100%) and significant increase in CMT in 10 cases (66.67%). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of CMT (CRAO) was 306.5 ± 27.9 (P < 0.001), the parafoveal inner retinal thickness (CRAO) 345 ± 51.8 µm (P < 0.001) and the parafoveal outer retinal thickness (CRAO) 120.9 ± 13.6 µm (P < 0.001). OCTA was performed and clear images obtained in 11 cases (73.33%). Disruption of superficial and deep capillary plexus was found in all cases. We concluded that the OCT is the most confirmative imaging method in the diagnosis of acute CRAO even in the absence of fundus signs. OCTA confirms the diagnosis, but it cannot be performed in some cases. Epub: October 1, 2019.

Clinical Efficacy of Topical CoQ10 and Vitamin-E Eye-drop in Retinopathy of Prematurity

Muberra Akdogan, Onur Polat

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 291-297

Treatment strategy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) includes anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) and/or laser therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of topical Coqun® eye drop (CoQ10 and Vitamin-E) on the progression and treatment of ROP. One hundred and ten infants with type 1 ROP who received Coqun® (Coqun group) and 131 infants with type 1 ROP who did not receive Coqun® (control group) were included in this retrospective analysis. All patients were follow-up until retinal vascular maturation was complete. Intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection or laser photocoagulation (LPC) were apply if needed. Treatment frequency, treatment response and mean follow-up time were compare. The number of IVB was similar between the groups, but infants in the Coqun group underwent significantly fewer LPC procedure than those in the control group (P = 0.022). The mean follow-up time was significantly shorter in infants receiving Coqun® in stage 1 ROP (P = 0.017) and similar in stages 2-4 ROP and aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP). The number of LPC procedure was fewer in the Coqun group in APROP (P = 0.043). These results indicate that faster retinal vascular maturation in infants with low-grade ROP and lower number of treatments with APROP could be achieve with Coqun® therapy. Epub: October 1, 2019.

Use of Fundus Autofluorescence Combined with Optical Coherence Tomography for Diagnose of Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Nathalie Massamba, Alexandre Sellam, Nathalie Butel, Dimitra Skondra, Violaine Caillaux, Bahram Bodaghi

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 298-305

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the sensitivity of Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detection of geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to exudative age related macular degeneration (AMD). In this retrospective case series study 77 patients (53% female, with mean ± standard deviation [SD] of 82.6±9.3 years) with 97 eyes (45 OS [left eyes]/52 OD [right eyes]) were included. This was a retrospective review of the charts of patients who presented with exudative AMD at the Pitié Salpetrière Hospital, Paris, France, between December 2016 and August 2017 that received intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapies. At baseline, following biomicroscopy examination, multimodal imaging was performed including, fluorescein angiography (FA), fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). During the follow-up, SD-OCT with/without FAF and FA were performed for each patient at 6, 12 and 18 months. For investigation of the prevalence of GA in eyes undergoing intravitreal injections with anti-VEGF therapy, FAF and SD-OCT images were qualitatively reviewed by four independent observers (two graders per group). Kappa coefficient of Cohen was calculated to determine agreement between the graders. The kappa coefficient of Cohen, for inter-rater agreement in the evaluation of FAF images was 0.468, indicating a moderate agreement between the first and second raters. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of FAF for the diagnosis of GA were 70% and 57%, respectively. If atrophy was assessed with SD-OCT image analysis, the kappa coefficient for inter-rater agreement was 0.846, implying an acceptable agreement between both readers. The sensitivity and specificity of SD-OCT were 93% and 58% respectively. In conclusion, SD-OCT image analysis was more sensitive than FAF for identifying GA in patients treated for exudative AMD. Epub: October 1, 2019.

Relationship Between Legal Blindness and Depression

Mati­as Osaba, Jimena Doro, Malena Liberal, Jennifer Lagunas, Irene C Kuo, Víctor E Reviglio

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 306-311

The higher prevalence rates of depression in visually-impaired individuals than the general population indicates that the condition per se increases the risk of depression. A person that is aware of the progressive loss of visual acuteness may have feelings of insecurity, anxiety, loss of independence and changes in social functioning, leading to depression. Several studies assessing the association between depressive symptoms and severity of vision loss have yielded inconsistent results. Some do not show any association, whereas others reported that depression severity is higher in those with substantial vision loss. The general aim of this manuscript was to determine the prevalence of depression in patients diagnosed with legal blindness in the Eye Care Service at the Hospital Córdoba between June 2016 and June 2017. The study sample consisted of 41 patients. The level of depression was assessed using the Zung scale and the degree of dependence in daily life activities was defined using the Barthel index. Data was anonymized for inclusion in a computer database and statistical confidentiality was protected. Data was analyzed using InfoStat statistical software. The results revealed a relation between legal blindness, degrees of dependency and depressive symptoms in patients of the Eye Care Service of the Hospital Córdoba. It is very important for health professionals to be trained to detect early signs and symptoms of depression and have the necessary tools for such an approach. Epub: October 1, 2019.

Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes with Non-infectious Posterior Uveitis; Some Practical Aspects

Omer Karti, Ali Osman Saatci

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 312-322

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is an innovative imaging technology enabling clinicians to learn more about the pathophysiology of disease processes as it facilitates visualization of the retinal and choroidal circulation without injection of a dye. Also it provides ample qualitative and quantitative data on the vascular supply. OCTA has become an important tool nowadays in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with age-related macular degeneration, inherited chorioretinal diseases, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusive diseases and optic nerve disorders. However, its place is relatively less known in non-infectious posterior uveitis (NIPU). OCTA may help mainly in assessing macular and peripheric retinal perfusion status, detection of retinal and/or disc neovascularization, diagnose of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization and visualizing the uveitic white-dot lesions. This mini-review describes the use of OCTA in patients with NIPU and summarizes some practical points in several uveitic entities. Epub: October 1, 2019.

Role of Schwann Cells in Preservation of Retinal Tissue Through Reduction of Oxidative Stress

Alireza Lashay, Raziyeh Mahmoudzadeh, Saeed Heidari Keshel, Asieh Naderi, Roghiyeh Omidi, Fahimeh Asadi Amoli

Medical hypothesis discovery and innovation in ophthalmology, Vol. 8 No. 4 (2019), 29 December 2019 , Page 323-332

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subretinal injection of Schwann cells on preservation of retina by decreasing oxidative stress in Dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Schwann cells were harvested from the sciatic nerve of postnatal day 5, RCS rats. Twenty-five RCS rats randomly assigned to cell and sham groups. Schwann cells injected in the sub-retinal space in one eye of the cell group and carrier medium was injected in one eye of the sham group. The proof for the appropriate site of injection of Schwann cells confirmed by the green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive cells. Electroretinogram (ERG) and enucleation for histopathology and enzymatic evaluation were performed 1, 2 and 3 months post-injection. The enzymatic evaluation included catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Three months after injection, histopathology assessments showed a complete absence of the outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptors and obvious reduction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the sham group. Cell group showed marked preservation of RPE, choroidal congestion and mild presence of ONL. The green fluorescent protein positive Schwann cells remained in one integrated layer during the study under RPE. The enzymatic evaluation showed that in cell group expression of SOD and GPx1 until month 2 and catalase until month 1 were significantly more than the sham group. At the end of month 3, the amplitude of ERG waves significantly preserved in cell group in comparison to baseline waves and the sham group. We concluded that Schwan cells are able to preserve retinal in RCS rats by reducing oxidative stress. Epub: October 1, 2019.